Chinese plum: a brief description, features and reviews
Plum has a long history. The man worked on breeding its best varieties, one of which is Chinese plum. On the varieties of this culture and their characteristics, read the article.
This culture comes from China. It grew in a cozy valley of the Yangtze River. But later spread to the north, south and in temperate latitudes. Today, the growing regions are Northern and Eastern China with a subtropical climate.
The background of this culture is as follows. In the early period of the Middle AgesChinese plumwas common in Bohai (formerly Manchuria) and in the south of Primorye, where a special cold-resistant variety of Chinese plum, the Ussurian, formed under the influence of the winter cold.
The first medieval state of Bohai, Genghis Khan, defeated in the XIII century, but separate plum trees survived, which grew wild until the immigrants arrived in Primorye. This time dates back to the XIX century.People again began to grow the Ussuri plum tree in their gardens.
A feature of Chinese plum is early fruiting and rapid growth. Around the second or third year of life, the first crop is removed from the tree. Every year it gets bigger. In favorable years, the harvest of fruits is so large that branches are bent under its weight.
The tree has a rounded crown and brilliant shoots of different shades: red, green or brown. The leaves of Chinese and home plums vary. In Chinese, they are oblong and much larger.
This culture has an unusual flowering: three or four flowers come out of one fruit bud, with which the whole tree is covered. For comparison: the home plum and cherry plum only one or two. Flowering begins early, about two weeks earlier than the home plum. In our region, return spring frosts are often detrimental to this process.
Plum blossoms occur at a time when the weather is not settled: it is cold outside, it is raining, pollinating insects have not yet appeared. For information: plum pollinator can be cherry plum, planted next to the garden.
Characteristic of Chinese plum fruits
Fruits of the best varieties weigh up to 120 grams, in size they are similar to large peach or apple. Their color is different: yellow, orange, purple, but in most cases - red. Some varieties have fruit with bright red flesh, sweet spicy taste and aroma of peach.The skin is weakly binding, durable, so that the fruits are stored for a long time and do not deteriorate during transportation. The bone in the juicy pulp has grown.
Chinese industrial plum has a crispy flesh with a cartilaginous consistency, so it is well transported and stored for a long time at low temperatures. But the taste of even the best Chinese varieties is worse than that of homemade plums.
Chinese plum varieties for the Far East and Siberia
Residents of Primorye, as it settled for the cultivation of plums used fruit pits. They bought them in the cities of China, in the market. The surroundings of Harbin were famous for the presence of an experimental field where selection work was carried out to develop new varieties of different crops.
So there were such varieties of Chinese plum as “Manchurian prunes”, “Manchurian beauty” and others that were bred on the Harbin fields.They are adapted to grow in harsh conditions, but in terms of their winter hardiness they are significantly inferior to the Ussuri plum. Although the quality of the fruit is better, and their size is much larger.
When Chinese plum appeared in Russia, it became the main crop among fruit trees in the Far Eastern region, in the Urals and in Siberia. She replaced the home, which was less winter-hardy.
Chinese skim fruit plum
Description of the variety of this type of culture has its own characteristics. The stems and leaves of the plum resemble willow twigs, so this plant is called the "willow plum". There is another name - “jujlinka”.
The leaves, up to ten centimeters long and four wide, have an oblong shape. They taper at the base, their jagged edges. From above the smooth surface of a leaf has dark green color. Spherical crown lush.
White flowers are collected in inflorescences in the form of an umbrella. Flowering begins in April, in the middle of the month. Large fruits are well-shaped, they have a pear-shaped or ovoid shape. In diameter reach five centimeters.
Fruits are yellow, green, purple, red. Their taste qualities are high.Juicy, sweet and sour pulp is pleasant to eat. The rough peel of the fruit is dense, so they are stored for a long time, not subjected to rotting, and retain their presentation during transportation. Harvesting begins in August.
This Chinese plum ripens in early autumn, but in some years, the harvest begins to gather in late August, depending on climatic conditions. Culture trees are low, reaching two meters in height. Their bark has a gray color, in which a brown shade is well traced. To the touch it is rough, with signs of flaking. Shoots do not differ straightness, they are curved, painted in brown.
Vegetative and fruit buds develop on the tree. The first are small, and the second are large. The Chinese Manchurian Beauty plum has an ellipsoidal leaves with a dark green color and a faint gloss. The sheet plate is concave, with a pointed tip and guttate edges. Its length is eleven centimeters, and its width is four. Each bud has three small flowers of white shade. They bloom before the leaves appear.
Characteristics of the fruits of the "Manchu beauty"
They are medium and large sizes. Each fruit weighs up to fifteen grams, has a rounded shape and a flat base, the funnel of which is narrow and deep. The dense, juicy flesh has a yellow-green color and a loose structure. The peel of medium density has a dark burgundy color with a pronounced patina of bluish tint.
The size of the bone is medium, the shape is oval with pointed ends, it is difficult to separate from the pulp. Chinese plum, reviews of which are positive, firmly attached to the stem. Due to this, the fruit does not fall off the tree even during strong winds.
This variety of Chinese plum is little known, and therefore not popular in Russia. Although plum unpretentious in growing and has many advantages. "Red ball" - a low tree with a spreading, but not a thick crown. Long branches hang down. It has a smooth trunk of a light brown Chinese plum color. Variety description has an interesting feature.
Roots have a horizontal structure, rather than vertical, like most trees.They are recessed into the soil by 50 cm, and the width of their area is the projection of the crown on the ground. Mature trees have roots that are five to seven meters deep.
A flowering tree has an unusual appearance: leaves appear after the flowers have fallen. The decorative look remains for a short time, since the plum has a very short flowering period. From one bud two or four flowers grow, in which there are five petals of white or pink shade. The whole tree is covered with delicate flowers. But not every flower is tied fruit.
The leaves have an elongated shape, and their edges are small cloves. The leaf plates are elongated, with a pronounced central vein. It seems that the sheet is concave, although its demise is bent outward. It seems that the leaves form a bouquet.
Red Ball Plum Fruits
Their ripening occurs in the middle of August, as the flowering of this plum begins earlier than other varieties of culture. The shape of the fruit justifies the name. They are almost round, have a bright red color with a lilac shade and a wax coating on the surface, because of which they appear bright pink in sunlight.
The skin of smooth fruits is dense, the lateral "seam" is almost invisible.The pulp is fibrous, friable, juicy. It has a light yellow color, a sweet and sour taste and excellent aroma. The small bone separates easily, which pleases lovers of making jam. The weight of one fruit reaches forty grams. Drain on the tree a lot, especially in suitable weather. On the one hand, this is good, but on the other - bad. When there are a lot of ovaries, the ripening of fruits lags behind in terms of two weeks or more. They are small and sour.
Lychee - Chinese Plum
This exotic fruit has a lot of useful properties and has an excellent taste, although it has not won the trust of Russian buyers. Probably because the Chinese lychee plum is practically not sold fresh in our country. This is an evergreen plant of the tropics and subtropics. Its height can reach 30 meters, and life expectancy - 1000 years.
This kind of culture comes from South China. Plum has a different name - "the eye of the dragon." The trunk of the tree is smooth, its bark is gray, the crown is thick. The leaves are shiny, on top have a dark green color, and from the bottom their color gets another shade - grayish-green. The leaves are characterized by a complex structure.They consist of four to eight narrow leaves with wavy edges and an elongated shape.
The flowers are collected in long inflorescences-panicles, from which clusters with fruits are formed. They are usually no more than fifteen pieces. After three and a half months after the flowering period, the fruit will ripen. This time (flowering) falls on the end of May and the beginning of June. During harvest, the seed shoots are cut off entirely, otherwise the plums will quickly deteriorate.
The skin of the fetus is bubbly, red. At the plucked fruit, it becomes brown. The flesh is light, gelatinous consistency. Stone of dark color, large size. The fruit is low in calories. Therefore, often used Chinese plum for weight loss. It tastes as sweet as grapes, its aroma is similar to the smell of roses and strawberries.
Lychee plum is tasty in fresh and canned form, consumers say. It is used as a flavoring chilled drinks and tea. It is the raw material for the perfume industry. Plum in its homeland is valued for its healing qualities, since there are many useful substances in the fruit: vitamins and microelements. Traditional medicine uses the valuable qualities of a plum to treatdiabetes, cough, diseases of the digestive system and many other diseases.
Chinese plum "superior"
This is a culture of Sino-Japanese breeding with an early gestation period, which falls on the beginning of August. "Superior" is a self-fertile variety of this species. But its productivity will be much higher if you use cross-pollination. For this, other varieties of plum or hybrid cherry plum are planted in the garden.
The variety is characterized by moderate vigor and regular, moderately abundant fruiting. The skin and juicy flesh are red-orange in color. The fruits are large, their weight reaches eighty grams. The bone is separated, but with difficulty. Plum "superior" (Chinese) is a dessert culture with honey taste and pleasant aroma. According to gardeners, long stored in a cool place. It has high winter hardiness and resistance to pests and diseases.