Geological structure, area and climate of the island of Newfoundland. Atlantic Islands
The island of Newfoundland belongs to Canada and is part of the province of the same name. This is one of the most famous islands of the Atlantic, though it is famous not for its geographic characteristics, but for the breed of dogs it bred. Where is the island of Newfoundland? What features are inherent in it? Let's find this out.
The Atlantic, or Atlantic Ocean, stretches between the eastern shores of North and South America and the western coast of Africa and Eurasia. In magnitude, it is inferior only to the Pacific Ocean. The coastline of the Atlantic is heavily indented, approximately 15% of its waters are represented by seas, straits and bays.
The relief of the bottom is cut by hollows, grooves, numerous ridges. Some rifts, uplifts and volcanoes rise above the water, forming land.Thus, relatively recently (in 1963), the volcanic island Surtsey was formed.
The largest islands of the Atlantic Ocean are the Azores, Bermuda, British, Antilles, Falkland, Bahamas, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, etc. There are quite a few of them compared to the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Some of them are inhabited, others are completely deserted and even impregnable, for example, Ron, Draungley or Rokoll, once called "a place of despair and horror."
Newfoundland (island): climate and geography
It is located near the northeast coast of North America. From the mainland of Canada, it is separated by the Straits Cabot and Belle Ile. It is considered the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The area of the island of Newfoundland is 111,390 square kilometers. It is among the largest in the Atlantic and ranks sixteenth in the world in size. The coastline stretches for 9.6 thousand kilometers. To the south of it are the overseas possessions of France - Miquelon and St. Pierre.
The climate of the island of Newfoundland is temperate maritime. Here it is often foggy and cold. A sudden wind easily turns into a storm.For the whole year on the island is on average about 120 sunny days.
Summer in Newfoundland does not last long, usually it is rainy and cool. In winter, a lot of snow falls. The average temperature in July ranges from 10 to 17 degrees in different parts of the island. In January, it does not fall below -12 degrees, and in the southern parts it is no less than -5.
The island is characterized by mountainous and hilly landscapes. The average height in its territory is 400-600 meters. It is a continuation of the Appalachian mountain range. The highest point of the island of Newfoundland is the top of the Cabox, which has shot up to 814 meters. It is located on the range of the Long Range in the western region of the island.
In the western part of the island’s plateau passes into the coastal lowlands, but mostly ends with steep cliffs. The eastern and northeastern shores of Newfoundland are carved by rocks. In the waters next to it are several hills, which are called banks. Their total area is almost equal to the island itself.
The Big Newfound Bank is located on the southeast side. It represents a huge shelf. In his area the water depth does not exceed one hundred meters.The bank is located at the intersection of cold and warm currents, which brings fog to the island.
The geological structure of the island of Newfoundland is associated with its continental origin. Together with Greenland, Scandinavia and the British Isles, it is a typical Caledonite, that is, it was formed in the era of Caledonian folding.
The foundation of the island of Newfoundland was formed in the Cambrian and the Early Ordovician from terrigenous-carbonate rocks. At that time, the island was the bottom of the ocean of Yapetus. Even 600 million years ago, the eastern and western parts of the island were located in different sides of this ocean.
During the period of the late Caledonian folding, the ocean began to close, and two opposite continental plates began to collide along the Greenland-Newfoundland and Scandinavia-Britain lines. At this point, there was an active compression of sedimentary rocks.
The surface formed from the shallows and from the collision of the island’s plates was exposed to glaciers. This can be seen in numerous lakes, the characteristic streaking of rocks and moraine deposits.
The island is part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.One of its first inhabitants - the Beotuk Indians. Viking settlements have been found on the territory of Newfoundland. They lived here in about the XI century. Their settlements Pointe-Rose and L'Annes-o-Meadows belong to the UNESCO world heritage.
11 years before the discovery by Columbus of America, the island was discovered by the Bristol sailors, but they were silent about this because of the abundance of fish off its coast. The official opening by the Europeans occurred in 1497. Captain John Cabot called it “New Earth”, the name of the island is actually translated from English.
In 1583, Newfoundland became the first overseas colony of England. Over the course of several centuries, the British population had reached almost two hundred thousand, while the Beautoks were completely destroyed. As a result, there is no indigenous population on the island.
The southwest of the island of Newfoundland is covered with dense coniferous forests. They are located in the valleys of the largest rivers and on the coasts. The composition of forests differs little from that of the mainland. The most common species are black spruce, birch, balsam fir. Here also grows dogwood, blueberries and many mosses.
The rest of the space falls on meadows, swamps and tundra.On the territory of the island are the national parks of Gros Morne and Terra Nova. The latter is located in the northeastern part of the island. Its area is 400 km.2. It is located right on the shores of Bonavista Bay and is cut by numerous fjords and braids.
Shelves around the island used to be a kind of marine "pasture", inhabited by many aquatic organisms. Because of the massive catch in the XX century, most of the fish were destroyed here. After that, the authorities imposed strict fishing restrictions.
Own breed of dogs
The name of the island is reflected in the name of the dog breed - Newfoundland. In Russia, the animal is called a diver. The exact origin of the breed is unknown. According to one version, it was brought specifically for the inhabitants of the island.
In past centuries, fishing was the main occupation of the locals. The nature of the dog fully meets their requirements. This fact usually serves as the main argument that the breed was bred specifically for local fishermen.
The dog is very friendly and not suitable for hunting. But she swims well and copes with the role of a companion. This is a very intelligent animal that can make independent decisions if necessary. This skill was extremely useful if it was necessary to save a drowning master.
The island is located off the coast of Canada and is part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The nature of the island is rocks, coniferous forests, swamps, bays and fjords. Its first inhabitants were Indians, who were completely destroyed by the colonialists.
Now the population of Newfoundland is fairly homogeneous: the British make up 93%, the rest are French and a mixed population. Locals are descendants of the first colonizers. The life and language of the population in some parts of the island are not much different from those that existed in the XVI century. This and other features of Newfoundland are very attractive for tourists.