Goddess Diana - a symbol of ancient Rome
The myths about the gods still have not clarified what was really happening on Olympus. Who ruled What were the rulers of the people of that time, and who was responsible for beauty, fertility, hunting, war, etc.?
Similarly, it is still not known who the goddess Diana was. It has a great symbolic significance for the culture of Rome. In other cultures, received a different name, but still remained recognizable, thanks to certain features in both appearance and character.
Who is she?
It is known that the Greek goddess Diana had a different name, often in this culture she was called as Artemis or Selena. It is also sometimes identified this character with Hecate. In Rome, this goddess was responsible for plants and animals, was related to hunting, was also the personification of femininity, fertility. According to some reports related to the moon.
In Greece, Diana was called Artemis or Selena. There was also a comparison of it with Hecate. The latter was seen in connection with the Wild Hunt. A little later, they began to call Diana and Trivia.The latter was the goddess of the three roads. That is why it is often portrayed at a crossroads. Trivia was a symbol of triple power: underground, on earth and in heaven.
Often Diana was compared with Italian folklore. It was assumed that the existing cult of the witches worshiped this goddess and appealed to her.
Goddess Diana was also known to the slaves. Initially, in Rome, Diana was not recognized and considered her appearance a “foreign trend.” Therefore, among the elite, she was not known. For this, her slaves were idolized, because they knew that they had immunity in the temple of Diana.
This temple appeared after Servius Tullius became king, thanks to the goddess. He was born in slavery, and after becoming a ruler, he dedicated her temple on the Aventine Hill. Each birthday of this holy place was considered a feast of slaves.
Servius Tullius honored Diana because once he heard a legend that he who catches an extraordinary cow and sacrifices her to a goddess will receive power in Italy. The future king found out about this and performed a ceremony by cunning. Later he attached the horns of a cow to the wall of the temple.
The goddess Diana in mythology, regardless of culture, had almost the same appearance.She was portrayed stately and graceful. She was wearing a short tunic, and her hair was picked up from behind.
Attributes have always been the same items. Usually they were associated with hunting: bow, quiver, darts. In addition, dogs were often noticed next to her. Since she was often called the goddess of the moon, she was sometimes displayed with a crescent on her head.
She was also often called the goddess of chastity, and therefore it is not uncommon to find a shield in her that protected her from the arrows of Cupid. Thus, Diana proved her personification of chastity. Later in the culture of displaying the goddess, punishing Cupid.
The fact that Diana is the goddess of the hunt is the most common opinion. This is due to many facts. Often it was displayed with hunting dogs that chase the animal. Most often the victim was a deer. Although this animal is not accidental. The legend has an explanation for its appearance.
Once, a young hunter Acteon was walking through the forest and came across a grotto. He saw Diana swimming with her companions. Due to the fact that without a gap of conscience he looked at divine nudity, therefore he was turned into a deer that his dogs ate.
In addition, the goddess Diana was noted in a group with nymphs and satyrs. Sometimes artists depicted her returning from a hunt, carrying her prey. After that, she rests, and around her a lot of weapons and dead game.
Diana was associated with the myths of the Wild Hunt. This phenomenon was first described by the Scandinavians. They called a wild hunt a group of ghostly horsemen who raced across the sky with a pack of dogs. In the Middle Ages, people believed that this group included witches, ruled by Hecate, which they often identified with Diana.
Initially, many believed that the goddess of the moon - Diana. Only over time, the features of Artemis were transferred to her, and they designated her as a hunter. In addition, it is believed that her character varies depending on the phases of the moon: Diana, Jan, Janus.
By the way, there was a theory proposed by Publish Figure, that Appolon is the personification of Janus, and his sister Diana - Jan, received the letter “d” in the name for euphony. Therefore, Janus is often likened to the sky, the sun and the moon.
From here it is possible to draw a parallel, which leads from the "old religion" of Italy, Stragerii. Beliefs said about the goddess Diana, as the Witch Queen.But the witches in this case had only a positive context. They were wise women and healers. At the same time, it was about the fact that Diana created the world from herself. She had to separate into light and darkness. For herself, she left the darkness, but creating her brother Apollo, gave him light. Therefore, Diana is often considered the moon, as it is a dark symbol, and Apollo remains the bright god of the sun.
By the way, the goddess Diana is also found in the virtual world - in the game League of Legends. There she is the goddess of the moon. Which once again proves her involvement in this “title”.
The goddess Diana was very famous throughout the world, and therefore was mentioned more than once in works of art. So in the 1-2 century BC, an unusual marble statue appeared dedicated to this character of mythology. She is called Diana of Versailles. It is also sometimes referred to as Diana the Huntress. This sculpture is reproducing the creation of one of the early Hellenistic sculptors.
In general, the sculpture displays Artemis, who is trying to get an arrow from the quiver, and with the left hand holds it or strokes the fawn. Now this statue can be found in the Louvre. She got there in 1798.
There are also two paintings by Titian in the culture: “Diana and Acteon,” as well as “Diana and Callisto.” The first displays the famous mythological story, which tells about the bathing of Diana and the hunter Actaeon, who found the naked goddess, and was punished.
The second picture tells about Callisto, who is a very multifaceted character. She was Diana's companion and promised to preserve her virginity, but she was impregnated by deception, which caused the anger of Artemis (Diana).