History of South Africa. Part Four Cecil Rhodes. Becoming


Cecil Rhodes - he was not at all the uneducated peasant who you were. Successfully graduated from high school in his small town. Since childhood, he read a lot and was an ardent admirer of antiquity and old philosophers, adored history and geography. I forgot to put commas, but I was not a hater of them like Dumas.

In childhood.
At 17 he was in South Africa in June 1870, he sailed for two and a half months on a ship among future settlers ... Ordinary ship, ordinary people, ordinary life ...
Now we know that this era is discoveries, wars and a mass of events, but for contemporaries it was a normal, sometimes dull life, more precisely for the majority - a gray mass ...
“There are no reasonable people at the age of seventeen,” said Frenchman Arthur Rambo in his early poems, who in a few years also went to Africa.
Remember his words: “My day is over. I am leaving Europe. The sea wind will burn my lungs; the climate of a faraway country will chill my skin.Swim, crumple the grass, hunt ... Drink drinks, strong, like molten metal, like our ancestors drank them around the fire.
I'll be back with iron hands, dark skin, mad eyes ... I will have gold. I will be idle and rude. Women care for such wild cripples returning from hot countries. ”
Probably something like that was experienced by Rhodes. But the main thing was his dream ...
At Oxford, he wanted to study since childhood, but he managed to fulfill his desire only much later when he arrived there straight from South Africa. He used the time of study rather peculiar. What did Rhodes want to study at this school now?

Oxford students in the pub.
Here is the forge of personnel of the British Empire - the future rulers of destinies ...
The possibility of acquiring connections, acquaintances ... And among students, children - the powerful, he found friends and acquaintances. He studied on most subjects satisfactorily, except for the most beloved ones, there he had the highest score. He said: What Alexander the Great did not do, I will do ...
In Africa, Rhodes did not part with the volume of "Thoughts" of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, considered this book a treasure trove of wisdom ...

Cotton plantation in South Africa.
Here, among people of simple morals, in a country where life was valued cheaply, he quickly grew up. At twenty-four, a mature man who has known life in all its manifestations. And he wrote a book where he laid out his ideas and dreams ... "If Rhodes had compiled his“ Symbol of Faith ”at the age of twelve, in the town of Bishop Stortford, or even at seventeen, on the way to South Africa, this could be taken as immature children outpourings, such as adolescent poetry or philosophizing, when we look at them we blush ... But Rhodes in 1877 is no longer a child, he is twenty-four, the age when a man marries and raises children, acquires a home, makes a career or writes a dissertation "- so said historian john flint 1974 telling something about than were silent colleagues and he also printed a non-banknote book of Cecil Rhodes.
The “Symbol of Faith” opens with the argument that each person has a main goal, with which he devotes his life. For one, it's a happy family, for the other, wealth. For him, Rhodes, this is the "work of serving the motherland."

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How did he understand his goal? The basis of the "serving the motherland" for him is the conviction that the British are the best people on earth."I affirm that we are the best nation in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it will be for humanity."
Mankind suffers, he believed, because the English people only give half the population increase they are capable of. And all this because of the lack of living space for the British, the lack of land for settlement. Maybe the British could emigrate outside the British Empire to other countries? No, answered Rhodes. "... It would be dishonorable to even suggest this, since, as I am convinced, we all believe that poverty is better under our flag than wealth under others."
Only one way out - to expand the British Empire. “Just imagine,” Rhodes called out, “what changes would come if those territories that are now inhabited by the most despicable specimens of the human breed come under Anglo-Saxon influence ... Our duty is to use every opportunity to seize new territories, and we must constantly to remember that the more land we have, the more numerous the Anglo-Saxon race, the more representatives of this best, most worthy human race on Earth. "
Who made Portugal, Spain, France great? The younger sons of impoverished noble families. On them, only the British, Cecile Rhodes made his bet ...
He believed that Freemasons and Jesuits did a lot, but not enough for the development of mankind. He entered the Masonic Lodge, but criticized for being passive and believed that "it is necessary to establish a secret society with the sole purpose of expanding the limits of the British Empire, placing the entire uncivilized world under British control, returning the United States and uniting the Anglo-Saxons into a single empire ... Let's create a kind society, the church for the expansion of the British Empire. "The organization according to the plan of Rhodes should be secret and have its own residents in every part of the British Empire. Representatives of the organization should work in schools and schools to select, “maybe one out of every thousand whose thoughts and feelings correspond to this goal.” A person with such money, connections and influence, which Rhodes did not throw words to the wind, especially since many years later confirmed that the thoughts set out in the "Symbol of Faith" do not disagree with what he is doing now ...In 1891, having met the famous English journalist William Stead, Rhodes sent him the "Symbol of Faith" with a postscript: "As you will see, my ideas have changed little."
-We live in a century when heroes are possible. One of the most glorious heroes lives among us. Our grandchildren will speak with envy about us: “How happy they are! They were contemporaries of the great Cecil Rhodes! ”
The words of Lord Salisbury, the English Prime Minister.
Rhodes is worthy of a whole series of books, but so far we know far less about this man than we would like; he managed to stay in the background.
The most famous milestones of his life.

Miners.
After becoming the diamond king, he drew attention to the gold mines. And even though he acted here, perhaps he was overly cautious, but still a third of the gold he mined began to settle in his pockets. Moreover, in the mines, he received a greater income than in diamond mining. Let me remind you that Rhodes has limited the number of diamonds appearing on the market in order to keep prices high. With gold to do such a need was not. Never forgetting the main creation of the Great British Empire, he began to expand its limits.
Moreover, the metropolis did not need to spend its finances, the all-powerful ruler of South Africa, so far only the Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, has invested in operations to seize land and exterminate local residents.
About Negrakhndebela, even though their king Lobengula personally visited Queen Victoria and signed an agreement on friendship and cooperation, it was not discussed at all, it was more difficult with the Boers. Rhodes' troops in several battles defeated the largest local Negro rulers and led to submission. One after another, new Rhodesia arose: Southern Rhodesia, North-Western Rhodesia, North-Eastern. The seizure of the territory of the future Zaire failed because of the Belgian king, who managed not to miss Rhodes. There were regular armed clashes with Portuguese Mozambique due to disagreement over borders. The future republic of Malawi fell at the feet of Rhodes.
With cunning by deceit and deceit, he forced the local residents of the Ndebele peoples and Shons to sign treaties, and then with an armed hand began to seize their lands. Historians estimate that Rhodes “added” to the British Empire two hundred and ninety-one thousand square miles — more than the territory of France, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland combined.Cecil Rhodes ruled South Africa, and the High Commissioner of Britain on these lands was an obedient puppet who carried out all his orders.
And what are the plans! Carry the railway across Africa from Cape Town to Cairo in Egypt! And the most incredible thing is that the day came when this plan came true ... Yes, for this the entire capitalist world was ready to carry Rhodes in his arms and carry out his whims.

Walking around Cape Town.
The American consul in Cape Town informed his government: “The influx of immigrants as a result of the occupation of the Zambezi areas will soon open up a vast market for our machinery for industry, agriculture and mining; and indigenous peoples ... Whose needs will soon increase due to communication with the white race, will increase enormously the volume of trade in which, I hope, the United States will receive a large share. "
Rhodes did everything he could to capture on this road countries that in the British Empire became known as Bechuanaland, Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Uganda.
Here are the original words of Rhodes “The world is almost completely divided, and what is left of it is now divided, conquered and colonized.What a pity that we cannot reach the stars shining above us at night in the sky! I would annex the planet if I could; I often think about it. I am sad to see them so clear and yet so distant. ”

It is estimated that from 1881 to 1915, 31.1 million people emigrated from Europe - almost one million a year. How many of them were appealing to Rhodes' appeals for the settlement of distant lands!
And Rhodes appealed to the common people, he knew how to manipulate, like no other, was the favorite of the crowd:
"Any workshop should realize that, until he masters the world markets, he will live from hand to mouth ... The worker must understand that if he wants to live, he must hold in his hands peace and world trade and that he is a goner, if he gives the world slip out of their hands. "
Patriotism has been speculated by countless politicians at all times, but rarely could anyone succeed in this as Rhodes did.
Not surprisingly, the plebs adored Rhodes, but they were also admired by nobles and hardened politicians.
Rhodes' conversations with Queen Victoria looked like this:
“What have you been doing, Mr. Rhodes, since the last time we saw you?”
- I added two provinces to the possession of Your Majesty.
- I wish that some of my ministers did the same, but they, on the contrary, manage to lose my provinces.
Each of his appearances in London, according to Mark Twain, attracted "the same attention as the eclipse of the sun" - all English nobles were going to dinner in his honor, even those who were enemies and avoided meeting each other for years.
Lord Salisbury, a politician who seemed to have long forgotten how to be surprised, wrote with amazement to Queen Victoria about the dinner in the family of her granddaughter, Duchess Fife. “A strange dinner was held by Fife in honor of the arrival of Rhodes. The Prince of Wales sat between Gladstone and Salisbury, Fife between Lord Hartington and Lord Grenville. ” Lord Salisbury himself, a representative of one of the most aristocratic families, publicly admired Rhodes. "Cecile Rhodes is a very significant person, a person with countless remarkable abilities, exceptional determination and will."
Yes, and Queen Victoria gave dinners in honor of Rhodes.
The press admired them. Here is the usual article, one of the typical. V.I. Lenin noted it in the Notebooks on Imperialism. It said: "The work that Mr. Rhodes and his assistants have performed ... will stand out in history as one of the greatest examples of the pioneering and colonizing genius of the British race."

One notorious person said about him like this: "Half of the world considers Rhodes to be an angel with wings, and the second as a devil with horns."
In Africa, his influence was immense and the most striking thing was that the Boers made him Prime Minister! Yes, yes, exactly, their party Afrikaner Bond in 1890 provided him with the highest post in the Cape Colony. Why?
He attracted the Boers with his measures to develop the farm, showed how to make the patriarchal economy profitable. To improve the production of fruit, he wrote out specialists from California, as well as birds, which saved the citrus crop from insects. After meeting with the Sultan in Istanbul in 1894, he ordered the Angora goats to be brought from the Ottoman Empire. Explained that the development of industry and railway construction facilitate the trade in agricultural products.
In addition, he offered the boers to change the system of duties to their clear benefit, while, however, trying to enlist their support for the same change in tariffs for the export of diamonds. Rhodes managed to split the Boers ...
He also created the famous bill, which he called "the law for Africa" ​​and laid the foundations of racial segregation.Rhodes, without a hint of irony, compared the lifestyle of Africans with the behavior of the most frivolous circles of the English aristocratic youth.
According to him, "those and others are equally idle and useless."
Do you remember Harry Johnston? He spoke about the blacks "... if they do not work under the supervision of Europeans on the development of the rich resources of Tropical Africa, where they still led the useless, unproductive life of a baboon, then by force of circumstances, under pressure from impatient, hungry, dissatisfied humanity, the united energy of Europe and Asia will once again lead them to slavery, which in the upcoming struggle will be an alternative to total annihilation. "
And he was not alone, Lord Gray considered the same, and Rhodes said the scientist Negro - an extremely dangerous creature, he becomes an agitator.
By the way, the famous writer Olivia Schreiner, the friend of Marx’s daughters, admired Rhodes, as did Jerome Jerome. But later they became disappointed ...
“He’s just doom for the Negroes, Schreiner said ... She wrote:“ I will explain my view of Cecil Rhodes with the following parable: imagine that he died, and, of course, the devils came to take him to hell, to which he belonged to the right.But it turned out that he was so big that he couldn’t crawl through either the doors or the windows, and then he had to unwillingly take him to heaven. ”
Rhodes is gradually becoming more authoritarian and infallible. He bought a huge piece of territory - the most expensive land in Cape Town and ordered to build a residence, in fact, a unique palace, the premiere of a united Africa.
The dominance of Rhodes in all spheres of South African life, Mark Twain implied when he wrote: “According to many, Mr. Rhodes is South Africa; others believe that he is only a large part of it, ”and also“ he is the only colonizer in all British dominions, whose every movement is the subject of observation and discussion throughout the world and whose every word is transmitted by telegraph to all sides of the globe. ”
Outside the British Empire, in France, in Germany, in Italy, they hated him and admired him, the ruling circles were considered an example to follow.
Here are the words of Conan Doyle:
"This is a strange, but truly great man, a powerful leader with ambitious dreams, too great to be selfish, but too decisive to be particularly choosy about the means - a manwhich is not measured by our usual human standards, so small for him. ”
Rhodes has combined a variety of images. Industrialist. Diplomat. Financier. The Conqueror. Ideologist. Politician and statesman Prime Minister and member of the Royal Privy Council. And almost always and everywhere - success, everything he touched brought profit.

The ideas of the world under the British crown constituted the whole meaning of his existence, he fanatically believed in them. And his crimes were justified, as committed in the name of a great idea. In any case, these crimes did not cause a sense of disgust and disgust in the European average man, not at all. At that time, it was commonplace and was considered almost the norm, we carry the light of enlightenment to the savages.
"Never before has any man brought upon himself so many curses and did not incite such hatred in all nations like Cecile Rhodes, but at the same time, no one, as before, so now, after his death, could not reproach him that he pursued narrow self-serving goals ... After failing, he did not hide behind someone else’s back and didn’t resort to any dodge to justify himself, did not blame and responsibility on others ... He really represented a gigantic figure in the literal sense of the word.You can make both a hero and a gangster out of him, depending on how you look at it. ”
These are the words of the famous journalist and ethnographer E. K. Pimenova.
In modern England, or more precisely, in the recent England of 1980, after the transformation of Rhodesia into Zimbabwe, disputes about Rhodes flared up. About who he is all the same? Hero or criminal? The legend of Rhodes, though faded, has survived to this day. After all, how much effort was invested in its creation and how many people believed in it. But still today it is only a pale shadow of the past ... Yes, and the modern young Englishman is unlikely to remember him ... Rhodes? And who is it?
Whatever it was, but Cecile Rhodes inscribed himself in the history of the World and Britain, and today he is the "father of the British Empire."

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