History of the disease according to ophthalmology. Eye diseases
Ophthalmology is engaged in the study of the structureeyes, his pathologies and various abnormalities. The doctor's task is to diagnose a disease, prescribe treatment and carry out preventive measures for healthy people.
Cataract, glaucoma - the most frequent diseasesin such a field of medicine as ophthalmology. The prices of drops and other medicines are average and quite accessible to all. Therapeutic course will not exceed 5 thousand rubles. But luxury can be called surgical treatment of most eye diseases, for this you have to pay around 100 thousand rubles. As a rule, this is not affordable for the average person. However, this does not mean that refusal of treatment is the best solution. It is more correct to maintain a minimum vision for life, than to live the rest of the years without seeing anything.
The history of the disease according to the ophthalmology of any personAlmost always includes cataracts. Often, the disease occurs in the elderly and develops at a low rate. In other cases, as a rule, it can appear as a result of a person's trauma, glucocorticoid and radiation treatment, hereditary predisposition, diabetes. Congenital cataracts are formed in children if the mother had influenza, herpes, rubella, measles and other infectious diseases during pregnancy, was in radioactive places or used "heavy" medications. But it is worth to clarify that doctors to this day can not figure out the exact causes of this disease. The history of the disease according to ophthalmology suggests that even a healthy parent can have a child with cataract.
The disease affects either one eye, ordevelops immediately in both. As a rule, if the cause of the appearance of the disease is not a mechanical trauma, then a cataract occurs simultaneously in two lenses. He is subject to either complete or partial injury.
Most of all, this disease affects peopleold age. The first symptoms may appear after 45 years. However, to date, there have been a sufficient number of cases in which cataracts developed much earlier. In the majority of 65-year-old people, the disease struck a certain zone of the lens, but there was no visual impairment.
Causes and Symptoms of Cataracts
Inflammation and eye trauma, surgery on them,prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, exposure to radiation, smoking - all this provokes the appearance of cataracts. It should be clarified that the institute of ophthalmology has established this fact: any tense visual work (reading, watching TV, long stay in front of the computer) does not affect the development and occurrence of the disease.
Symptoms of cataract:
- when one eye is closed in the second, there is a feeling of doubling;
- light blurry image, "fog" in the eyes;
- the onset of myopia;
- At night, there are glints and flashes in the eyes;
- too strong sensitivity to light at night;
- violation of color vision.
Treatment of cataracts
To make the patient diagnosed in a condition onlyan ophthalmologist. If you find at least one symptom of cataract, you should immediately immediately go to the hospital. It is necessary to understand that the absence of treatment will lead only to complete blindness.
With this disease, cataracts are surgically removed. Conservative treatment ultimately does not give any results, it only slows the development of the disease.
Doctors, as a rule, prescribe two types of treatment: medicamentous and surgical. At the first appoint vitamins in the form of drops for the eyes. They must be taken continuously, without stopping, otherwise the disease will begin to progress with renewed vigor. The operation is aimed at replacing the lens with an artificial model. Now the method of ultrasonic phacoemulsification has become popular. He came to replace intracapsular extraction, which constantly caused complications. The ultrasound method is considered a standard procedure and is performed in any hospital under local anesthesia. Removing cataracts and replacing them with silicone or plastic is a positive result in 95% of cases. The operation itself lasts no more than 10 minutes; after it is carried out, the person should stay in the hospital for several days, then the patient is discharged, assigning drops to him.
Surgeons also perform and extraction of cataracts. This procedure is aimed at removing the clouded part of the lens. The capsule remains untouched, and a flexible and rigid lens is inserted into the eye.
Prevention of cataracts
It is best to diagnose the disease in the early stages. That's why people who are less than 65 years old need to be examined every 2-4 years, and those who are more than 65 years old - every 1-2 years.
The disease progresses in such a way that, according tothere are no preventive measures against him. Doctors recommend to abandon bad habits, keep to a diet, wear sunglasses and constantly check blood sugar levels (in order to avoid diabetes), often wash your hands to not put the infection in the eye. In addition, eye drops can be used. The history of the disease according to the ophthalmology of most people suggests that "Vicetin", "Taufon" and "Quinaks" are effective.
Glaucoma, like cataracts, is more common inelderly people, but cases of congenital disease have also been reported. The exact causes of the disease have not been identified. It is believed that it arises because of unstable intraocular pressure.
Types of glaucoma
Various pathologies of the most important sense organ are studied by ophthalmology. Diseases of the eye more often strike a civilized man. One of them is glaucoma. There are several types of glaucoma:
- Open angle. The most common among all. It arises due to the fact that the eye fluid flows with a small speed, this is a deviation from the norm.
- Closed-angle. In this case, the outflow of liquid stops altogether.
- Normothesive. So far, scientists have been unable to study this glaucoma. It is believed that with her the optic nerve is damaged, even in the situation when the intraocular pressure is in order.
- Congenital (child). As a rule, it is fixed by the doctor before 5 years. It arises from the pathology that prevents the outflow of fluid in the eyes.
- Pigmentary. The least common form of glaucoma. In the iris a pigment is deposited, which as a result blocks the movement of the intraocular fluid.
- Secondary. The history of the disease according to ophthalmology confirms that this type arises as a "child" disease, that is, it is a complication of pathology.
- Pseudoexfoliation. Pseudoexfoliation (layering in the form of flakes) is deposited on the cornea, iris.
- Neovascular. New vessels appear that interfere with the natural outflow of fluid.
- Iridocorneal syndrome. Occurs in one eye. Due to the incorrect position of the cells, the optic nerve is damaged as a result of increased pressure.
Treatment and prevention of glaucoma
Unfortunately, glaucoma is not completely cured,and vision at 100% is not restored. All that can be done is to slow down the development of the disease, raise the pressure in the eye to normal, thereby "freezing" the nerve damage and the onset of blindness for a while.
Often, doctors prescribe treatment in the form of drops, less often - tablets. Operational and laser correction types are also used.
Some countries in the world allow the use of marijuana in critical cases. According to some reports, she is able to lower eye pressure.
Universal preventive measures, as inthe case of cataracts does not exist. All that a person can do - on the recommendation of a doctor to use drops, wash hands frequently and regularly visit an ophthalmologist. Glaucoma, whose treatment and prevention are closely interrelated, requires a serious attitude and constant control.