How to lay a brick?
In this article, we will tell those who decidedDo yourself how to build a brick yourself. Without bricklaying for a long time and to this day, almost no summerman, because brick - a universal stone. Since many ancient architects managed to discover the recipe for brick burning many hundreds of years ago, brick has become one of the most popular building materials in the world. Now we will describe the process of laying bricks step by step and begin, naturally, with a solution.
Preparation of the solution
For masonry bricks are commonly usedsand-cement mortar in the following proportion: 5 parts of sand account for 1 part of cement. What is it for? The solution is required in order to avoid the displacement of bricks. However, such a solution is sufficiently viscous and to give it greater fluidity, it is often added 1 part of clay, lime or even liquid soap. True, for the laying of hollow bricks such a recipe is not suitable, because the fluid solution will flow into the cavities of the brick and thus worsen the thermal insulation properties of the material.
Mixture for masonry is prepared by mixingsand and cement, first dry, and then gradually begin to add water to the required density. If you have to put not too many bricks and you work alone, then prepare the mixture gradually for each small batch. The fact is that the solution is consumed slowly enough and it simply does not make sense to cook more than 20-30 liters of solution at the same time, especially if you do not yet have sufficient practical skills in brick laying. Spend one batch of the solution, then prepare the next.
The most important tool of a bricklayer is a trowel. With the help of a trowel, you will apply the mortar to the bricks, select the squeezed out solution when adjusting the bricks, and also trim the already laid bricks with the trowel handle.
The next tool is a Bulgarian or a cutting machine. It will need cutting discs on the stone. Bulgarian will help you to cut or cut the brick with precision.
If there is no Bulgarian, then the so-called kirochka (hammer with sharpened striker), which will allow splitting bricks, will do.
And a couple of the necessary tools for brick laying: the plumb and the building level. With their help you will check the accuracy of the masonry.
How to lay a brick: we proceed to laying
Beginning masons arise, as a rule, two difficulties when laying bricks:
- Derivation of vertical right angles.
- Laying bricks on one level in a straight line.
Before you put a brick, let's talk about how to avoid these problems. To do this, you must fulfill the following conditions.
First, and this is the main point in the laying,try to lay the first row of bricks in the most level. To make it straight and smooth, you can use, for example, a long rod, a stretched cord or rule as guide lines. Put the bricks so that between the brick row and the guide there is a gap of about 3 mm, since otherwise the solution will press on it.
Secondly, to check the leveling of the masonry, use the level.
And thirdly, do not forget to check the adjacent bricks, so that there are no deviations in the horizontal and vertical planes. It is especially important at the same time to properly perform the face masonry.
Ways of the seam execution
If the wall is subsequently plastered,use a method called "in the wasteland". In this case, the solution is not brought to the outside of the brick, leaving a small gap. The fact is that the plaster solution, when flowing into such cracks, is better kept on the wall.
If you carry out masonry stove or fireplacepipe, you need to apply the method "in the undercut." In this case, the gap is filled with a flush solution with the edges of the brick. It will give smoothness to the inner surface of the stove or chimney, and soot will not accumulate on it. Also, such a jointing is used sometimes for decorative purposes.
A purely decorative function carries a concave ora prominent seam between the bricks. In order to get a concave seam solution, you can use a stick or a tube. And for a convex seam, it is necessary to cut the tube along and apply it to the seam in such a way that the grout of the solution takes a convex shape, and then clean.
Layout of corners
The angles in the brickwork should be laid out infirst. Also they must be higher than the walls themselves. This is done so that there are so-called beacons or rappers, by means of which it will be possible to pull the berthing cords, which denote the height and line of the masonry. To the cord-dock does not hang, it must be pulled tight enough.
It should be noted that properly laid out corners more than half ensure the accuracy of the laying of the rest of the structure, so pay special attention to this.
Ordering is flat metal corners,which allows you to accurately output the required rectangular angles. In order to establish the order in the corners, you must first lay a few bricks with a level. After this, you can fix the order, which is done with the help of so-called clamps or special staples. Further, the accuracy of the order is checked by a plumb or level, after which it is possible to pull the cord-pier.
With a small length of the wall you can use instead of the pier with a long aluminum profile. It provides exceptional accuracy for horizontal straight masonry.
Additional tips on how to properly lay bricks
First, do not forget to tie the bricks and remember that the seams in the adjacent rows should in no way coincide.
Secondly, remember that you need to stackreinforcing mesh for every 5 rows of bricks. If you have a question how to lay a facing brick, then the rules are the same as when laying the usual. Let's just say that facing brick is different in that it has a smaller size and performs a purely decorative function.
Further: Before you start the work on laying the brick, draw a plan for laying, count the number of rows and the approximate number of bricks. In this case, proceed from the size of the brick, which in the standard version is 25x12x6 cm. Do not forget about 10% of the reserve - the brick can be pummeled during laying.
Before laying on the solution, try to put the bricks dry first - this will help you to identify possible defects.
Also, immediately before laying on the solution, moisten the bricks in the water - dip them into a bucket of water or into another container.
And, of course, do not rush! The solution dries out slowly enough, so you will have plenty of time to fix the masonry. If there is a desire, watch the video how to put bricks - there are a lot of clips on the Internet today on any topic.