How to learn to read? We read by syllables. Reading technique
If earlier children were taught to read in the first grade, today the requirements are tougher. The child should already be taught literacy. Some schools will not even accept a kid who cannot read. However, not all kindergartens teach children so complex science. It depends on the choice of preschool program. Therefore, very often before the parents and future first-graders there is a completely logical question: how to learn to read? At the same time, I would like to help the child not only to master the basics of reading and writing, but also not to discourage him from practicing.
The modern education system is aimed at full-fledged education of children from 6 years. This is the age when a child can and understands a lot, can independently take care of himself. By this time, the preschooler's active perception of new knowledge is increasing, which directly indicates readiness for learning.
Recent studies in the field of psychology and pedagogy have confirmed an interesting assumption - the kid is ready to receive knowledge from three years.Of course, one cannot but agree with the indignant question of parents: “Is it even possible to learn how to read at that age?” After all, he really seems like a crumb. The authors argue that the answer to the question lies in the peculiarities of the development of the baby, and recommend starting training at the stage of the child’s cognition of the world and the statements of his “I”.
However, remember that all preschoolers, as well as their abilities, are very individual. Therefore, "chasing" other people's children is not worth it. Observe the baby, and if he is ready to learn, only then begin to deal with him the basics of reading and writing.
Signs of readiness
In order to avoid an unpleasant situation later, when the child does not want to read, and the knowledge he has previously received is simply forgotten, one should carefully analyze his behavior.
The main signs that he is willing to learn will greatly help prevent a mistake:
- The baby's speech consists of whole sentences. He can make a coherent story about a book, film, or small event.
- The child hears and correctly recognizes sounds. To check, ask your child to repeat the syllable after you (Ms., for, sa-sa, tsa-cha). Listen carefully to what he says.
- A preschooler correctly utters all sounds and does not need the help of a speech therapist.
- The kid perfectly orientates himself in space, does not confuse the concepts of “top”, “bottom”, “left”, “right”.
A child who copes with all the tasks listed above is psychologically ready for learning. Parents can safely begin classes with him.
Methods of teaching reading
The main modern techniques to teach a child to read include reading:
- By syllables. The child learns them, and only then there is a further process (Zaitsev technique).
- In words. The training is based on visual memory (by Glen Doman).
- Sound letter. The child hears the pronunciation, and then relates it to the spelling.
- Folding technique. The kid remembers the letters and then connects them into syllables.
Regardless of the chosen method, you should know and be sure to take into account the basic requirements so as not to harm the baby. For a child, everything is important. Mistakes made by parents always leave a mark in the soul of children. And often inhibit the development of the crumbs for many years.
Correctly pronounce the letter.Teaching a child, always call only sounds, such as "M". Do not say "um."This greatly confuses children. And to your proposal: “We read in syllables” the baby will seriously read “EMA-EMA” instead of the long-awaited “MA-MA”.
Correctly read.Many words in Russian are pronounced quite differently as they are written. Adults read orthoepically (as is customary). The child - only spelling (just as it is written). That is why, when we teach children, we should read “MOTHER,” not “MALAKO.” And if it's just an evening bedtime story, then you can say the words in the usual way.
We divide on warehouses.There comes a time when the baby starts trying to read. Very difficult and slow down such a process difficult syllables. In this case, they can be divided into warehouses, noting with a pencil such a division. And instead of the complex, consisting of one syllable, the word "elk" the child will easily read two lungs "lo / sy".
Do not attach to the alphabet.Start learning letters should be based on the frequency of use. Thus, we first memorize those of which the baby will be able to make familiar words - his name, favorite toy, the names of parents.
We teach in the game. In order not to cause the preschooler aversion not only to reading, but also to learning new things, be sure to include a variety of games in the process of your studies.
We limit time.During classes with the child should not forget that the baby should read no more than five to ten minutes. Forcing him to sit at the alphabet for half an hour, you do not accustom the child to school lessons - you completely discourage the desire to learn. After all, any occupation of first-graders consists of a constant change of activity, and not a 30-minute reading.
The main principle is “do no harm”.If during your lessons your baby acquires a persistent dislike for learning, it will be almost impossible to retrain him. It is better to read less than to hate it at all. And each time when the planned volume has not been studied by a child, be sure to tell yourself: “We are LEARNING TO LEARN!” For children, sometimes a few sentences can be more useful and informative than an uninteresting text that has been developed under pressure.
The game is the key to success
Various studies by leading psychologists and teachers have proven that the kid best masters the knowledge taught him in a playful way. And if you have a ripe question, how to learn to read, the answer is one - play with it! After all, only this form is most effective for studying the world. This is the best teaching method.Build classes as if in between times, do not focus attention on the "lesson". Do not tell the kid: “Everything, we leave everything to do and learn to read by syllables.” Games, properly chosen, perfectly cope with this task, and the method of learning will not cause hostility.
With all your strength try to maintain an interest in acquiring knowledge, so base your classes on your child's hobbies.
Cut letters.Prepare special cards for this game. Write large letters on them. Now cut them into several pieces (3-5). Offer a child to collect. First, pick up parts of one letter for it, then add one part from another. When the baby copes, show him parts of 2-3 letters at a time.
Initially pick up those that can not be confused (A, C, I, P). Further complicate things a bit by suggesting parts that are somewhat similar in writing (P, B, K, F).
Be sure to ask the young talent, what letter he folded. The child must correctly name the sound, not confusing it with similar ones.
This game resembles puzzles for children, so it is always like and perceived with delight.
We find the letter.Find any text with a very large font for this game. This may be an old children's book, an alphabet or a printed page printed by you. Ask your baby to carefully review the text. It should find the letter that you learned, and emphasize.
The child necessarily calls her. Do not forget that such an occupation is a game for him, for you this is the most real lesson in the subject “Reading”. Preparing your child for school depends entirely on the sequence of the submitted material and the base that you can teach him in the form of a game.
Over time, complicate the task. Have your child look for two familiar letters at the same time. In this case, one must be underlined, and the second, for example, in a circle. It is worth noting that such a game perfectly trains attentiveness.
Much better if the alphabet you do with the child together. This is where you should show all your fantasy. You can create an album in which each sheet will correspond to a specific letter. For example, you draw the letter “M” that you learned today. Baby paints her. Review with him old magazines, postcards, unnecessary catalogs in search of pictures on the right letter.Let the child cut them out and stick them on their own. Very often parents buy bright ABC posters for their children. At first, the child learns well from them, but later, when the pictures are remembered, the interest completely disappears. The kid just learns the pictures, not the letters, unfortunately. He has great difficulty reading - class 1 for such a crumb will be a real test.
Creating such an alphabet will serve him well. He himself will pick up pictures, which means he will precisely remember the learned letter.
We read by syllables
When the child learns the entire alphabet, it is time to move on - start to connect the letters in syllables. Such a process always causes certain difficulties for children. How to explain a letter combination to a child, you can think up on your own or use the following method.
Prepare cards with letters written on them. Show the child a consonant sound and offer to stretch it a little, and then demonstrate another - a vowel, calling which the child read his first syllable very protractively.
For example, you showed “C” and then changed it to “O”. What will the child read? Sssoooo.In some children, even such a visual alphabet can be difficult. This does not mean that the baby is more stupid, it just has a different form of perception. In this case, we read to children. 5-6 years is the age when a preschooler is ready, like a sponge, to absorb information. Demonstrating once how to pronounce a syllable, you will be surprised how quickly he learns the technique and what excellent results he will show.
Ask your preschooler to play the game "Shop". To do this, prepare in advance the "goods". It is best to cut pictures from the old collections of the magazine. Just watch carefully for the words. They should be pronounced exactly as read, so as not to cause additional difficulties for the baby. For example, the word "wool" is appropriate, but "water" is better not to use. Do not forget about the "money". On separate pieces of paper, write one syllable at a time.
First, offer the child to be a buyer, and become a seller yourself. The buyer chooses the purchase and must pay for it with money. For example, he decided to buy a “car”, which means he offers a piece of paper with the syllable “ma”. If the choice fell on the "newspaper", then accordingly there should be money "ha".
So that the game is not boring, switch places. Turn out to be not a very experienced buyer, who often makes mistakes and offers the seller completely different “money”.
This game can be complicated when the child successfully masters it. Now the money will be the last syllable. For the word "newspaper" - it will be a piece of paper "ta."
We read the words
In the next stage, most parents are relieved. Well, finally, the letters have been studied, the syllables are read that they have already been folded into words. In practice, most often it turns out quite differently. The kid correctly calls all the syllables of which the word consists, but cannot completely completely call him. What is the reason? Why is the child reading poorly? Parental surprise has no limits.
It is very difficult for a child to perform two functions simultaneously - to correctly read and understand the content. Learning meaningful perception is the next stage of preparation for school. If this moment is missed, science will be difficult for the child, although the reading technique will eventually show an excellent result.
Variants of games
Insert a letter.This game is very effective at the initial stage of reading words. Find pictures for words consisting of three letters.For example, house, mouth, cat, moss, shower, smoke, whale, bow. Under the pictures sign the name, writing only the first and last letter. Suggest an average sound for the child to add by itself.
Make a word.Pictures are no longer needed for this game. Prepare cards with syllables that make up certain words. To get started, take the simple ones - “Re-ka”. Suggest your child to make a word. When the child copes, complicate the procedure, now we are talking about three syllables.
Cook. Write words on different pieces of paper on different pieces of paper. For example, egg, cabbage, carrots, meat, potatoes, sugar, jam, fish, salt. Assign the child the role of chief cook. To do this, put on his cap and apron. It is best to play in the kitchen and use real pots. You will be cooking dinner together. Make puree and compote, boil the soup and fry the patties. For cooking, the chef must select the desired product and lower into the cooked pan. If the child is difficult to determine the selection of components, tell him, and he will find the right word.
At this stage of education, you can already offer special books for children.It should be simple poems, always with pictures or simple fairy tales. Best of all, if the choice falls on your favorite baby works.
The fact that the school checks the speed of reading, everyone knows. Often this is the result that affects the assessment. It is very unpleasant that the test does not take into account the speed of the thinking process, the physiological possibility of pronouncing words. These abilities for each child are very individual, and their influence on speed is obvious. You can help your child improve results, but you should not forget that the reading technique should not improve at the expense of poor understanding of the content.
It is very useful to repeatedly work through the same text. Set a specific time and have your child learn what is written. When the time has elapsed, place a mark above the word on which reading was interrupted. Repeat the same procedure a second time. Be sure to note that the baby has already read a few more. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the young talent, knowing the word, looks at the graphic image, relating the letters he saw with the spoken sounds.This technique directly improves the reading technique. In addition, the kid notices his success, and therefore, will try even more.
For training the speed of reading is excellent various literature for children. A big advantage is their diversity. Sometimes a child has difficulty switching to other fonts. Therefore, practice on a variety of children's books.
Instead of conclusion
The proposed method is suitable for most children. It is aimed at solving the most important problem - lack of interest in the baby. Try to build all the classes exclusively in a playful way so that your child does not lose the excitement to learn new things. After all the recommendations in your head should be clearly lined up a scheme that gives the answer to the sore question how to learn to read. When following her great difficulties will not arise. However, remember that the lack of organization of parents very often negates all the results. Irregular classes will not bring anything, while regular small “lessons” guarantee an excellent result.