Malina Gusar: how to grow a good crop
Hussar is a strong-growing variety with powerful shoots and large berries. Under raspberries need a lot of space. Large bushes need abundant watering and fertilizing. Tangible advantage - thorns only in the lower part of the shoots.
Renovation raspberry Hussar: variety description (with photo)
Raspberry appeared in Russian gardens at the turn of the two centuries, in 1999. Bred in Bryansk breeder Kazakov. The variety is zoned for the Central and North Caucasus regions, however, it is also grown in the south, due to its high resistance to drought, and in the north, because it is not afraid of frost. The bush grows sprawling, powerful, 1.8–2.5 m tall. The spikes are formed only in the lower part of the stem, but the fruit twigs cover its entire length. Growing up is formed little - 6-8 root offspring for the season.
There are no thorns on the shoots of Hussar, in the part where the berries are formed
The berries of Gusar are large, with an average weight of 4 g, but with good agricultural technology they can grow to 10 g.Form - elongated, conical with a rounded tip. The color of ripe raspberries is bright red with a ruby hue.The taste is bright, sweet, with fine sourness and a distinct aroma. Harvesting begins in mid-July and lasts almost a month. One bush produces 3.6–4 kg of berries. This is a common variety - not remontant, that is, it bears fruit only once per season.
Video: raspberry during fruiting
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety - table
|Large and tasty berries||Too high shoots, you need to cut, tie|
|Spikes do not interfere with harvesting||Little overgrowth - not enough planting material for breeding|
|Little overgrown||Powerful bushes occupy a lot of space on the site.|
|Resistant to drought and frost||Affected by shoots gall midge, raspberry-strawberry weevil|
|Not amenable to viral infections: curl, mosaic, spotting|
Site selection, planting dates and soil preparation
Raspberries in the forest
In the wild, raspberries grow on the banks of rivers, ravines, along the edges of swamps, in clearings, that is, in sunny places, covered with winds by trees, on loose and wet, but not flooded soils. Such a plot and need to find in your garden for a breakdown raspberry.Bushes should be sunlit most of the day.In the shadow of a hussar will not bear fruit, or the berries will grow small and sour.
Planted raspberries along a fence in one row so that each bush is well lit and aired.
Favorable for planting periods: spring - in April and autumn - after September 15. The root system of this culture is not as powerful as that of trees, so planting pits are not prepared in advance. It is enough to clear the area of debris, old plant residues, and for the prevention of disease, treat the soil with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture (100 g per 10 l of water).
Clay and poor soil is better to dig, adding to 1m²:
- 1 bucket of compost or humus;
- 1 bucket of peat or 0.5 buckets of sand;
- 0.5 liters of ash.
Video: Where to plant raspberries?
Selection of seedlings and planting
In the raspberry seedling the most important part is the root, it is he who will give the young shoots on which the flowers and berries will appear. The stem is needed only for ease of planting and as a markup.
Criteria for choosing a seedling of raspberry Gusar:
- only one stem about 30 cm high with no signs of disease on the bark: purple, brown, black or white spots;
- root luxuriant, fibrous with replacement buds or rudiments of young shoots;
- seedlings in containers will have to be assessed as the stem: alive, not dried; at spring purchase the ideal case, when through the soil shoots germinate.
The main thing in the seedling is the replacement buds on the roots, from which young fruiting shoots will grow.
Stages of landing:
- Sow the seedlings with roots in a solution of one of the stimulants: Kornevin (1 g per 1 l of water), Zircon (4 drops per 1 l), Heteroauxin (1 tablet per 2–3 l of water).
- While the Hussar is gaining strength, prepare the pits with a depth of 50 cm and a diameter of 40 cm. Fold out the removed soil carefully in piles near the pits. Planting pattern for high-growth varieties: 80–100 cm in a row, 150 cm between rows.
- From each mound of earth taken out of the pits, prepare a nutrient mixture. Mix this soil with humus (0.5 buckets), ash (1 cup), superphosphate (1 tbsp. L.) And potassium sulphate (1 tbsp.). Rates are for a single bush! Lovers of organic farming can only do with humus and ash.
- Spread the seedlings in the holes. Each expand or deepen depending on the size and shape of the root system. Be sure to straighten the roots, you can not bend them, twist, etc.
- Pour the roots in the pits with the prepared soil mixture, lightly tamp, form recesses for watering.
- Under each seedling, pour 1-2 buckets of water, let it soak and cover with mulch.You can sprinkle dry soil.
Video: Planting raspberries, look like high-quality seedlings
Care for Raspberries Gusar
Raspberry roots are located superficially, the main mass is at a depth of 50 cm. This layer should be well moistened during the most important periods for the culture:
- the beginning of the growth of ovaries;
- ripening of the first berries;
- 10 days after the previous one;
- immediately after harvesting the last berries;
- at the end of October - charging irrigation, if the autumn was dry.
During the season raspberries watered 4-5 times
Water consumption under each bush Hussar - up to 40-50 liters. It is not recommended to apply sprinkling as it is non-normalized watering. In addition, this method often leads to fungal diseases, wateriness and rot of berries. Whether it is necessary to water in the specified periods, decide on the circumstances. Excavate the earth, retreating from the bush 30-40 cm, to a depth of 50 cm, if the entire layer is well moistened, the soil coalesces into a non-dispersible lump, then water it is not necessary. Also critical of the norms of watering. For example, if only the upper 25 cm are not sufficiently moistened, then reduce water consumption by half.Keep the soil in the raspberry pan under the mulch. A layer of sawdust or straw will retain moisture and free you from regular loosening.
Video: Watering berries, including raspberries
Feed - table
|Terms of application||Fertilizers and Dosage||Application Method|
|Early spring thawing snow||50 g of urea or ammonium nitrate per 1 m²||Sprinkle over the remaining thin layer of snow or melt water (in pools)|
|In the spring, when the earth dries||1 bucket of compost, or 1 bucket of humus, or 6 kg of dry bird droppings per 1 m²||Sprinkle before the first spring loosening and put into the soil to a depth of no more than 5-7 cm|
|In the budding phase||Complex fertilizer for foliar fertilizing, for example, Kristallon Special (1 g / l) or Fitovert Energy Active (1% solution)||Spray, wetting all the leaves|
|After harvest||An infusion of grass, mostly nettle (1:10), plus a glass of ash in a top dressing bucket||Water until the soil gets wet (1–2 buckets under a bush). This solution can not burn the roots.|
|In the autumn, in October||60 g of superphosphate and 40 sulphate of potassium per 1 m²||Scatter around the bushes and burst out|
Do not use mineral fertilizers containing chlorine.Raspberry can develop chlorosis. At the end of the summer, sow siderats (rapeseed, mustard, phacelia) in the raspberries. In the autumn, cut and put into the soil or use instead of mulch.
Pruning and shaping bushes
Traditionally, gardeners use a method in which the bush consists of absolutely smooth (without side branches) and long stems. Berries are formed only on the tops.Now the method of double cutting according to Sobolev is gaining popularity. Berries with this technology cover the entire stem. And since the Hussar forms a lot of side branches, it will be reasonable to use this technology to increase the yield.
Double pruning according to Sobolev:
- In June-July, when the young green shoots grow to 100–120 cm, shorten them by 10–15 cm (cut the tops).
- In August, immediately after harvesting, cut the woody stems from the ground itself. Then all the forces of the Hussar will direct to the growth and development of young shoots and the laying of the buds of the future harvest.
- By the fall, on the remaining annual stems, the lateral branches will grow, along with them the raspberry must winter.
- In the spring of 7-10 cm shorten the side branches, tie the formed shoots to the trellis.
- In the summer, new young shoots grow, repeat the whole scheme from the first paragraph.
Video: Double Raspberry Trim
In addition to pruning, the formation of bushes and the removal of shoots. Hussar gives up to 10 shoots, but in the bush for better lighting, leave 5-7. Cut the extra (the weakest) can be in the fall, but it is better in the spring, because some shoots may freeze or break when you bend them to the ground for wintering.
Root offsprings (shoots), remove as they appear.If they broke through at a distance of at least 25–30 cm from the bush, then dig them up with a shovel, grew closer - dig to a depth of 5–7 cm and cut them with a pruning shears.Pulling shoots out of the ground is impossible!
Preparing for the winter
After the above-mentioned autumn events (charging irrigation and phosphate-potash fertilizer), it remains to mulch the roots and bend the stems to the ground.
Hussar is not afraid of frost, but spring temperature drops are dangerous for him. After the snow melts, an ice crust forms on the soil, which can destroy the roots, and hence the entire bush.
The soil under the bushes within a radius of 30 cm, cover with a thick layer of mulch (10-15 cm) of straw, dry grass, sawdust, you can use lapnik. It is important that this layer let air through, otherwise the roots will rot. Then you need to bend the stems to the ground so that in the winter they are completely under the snow. To do this, the shoots of two adjacent bushes tilt each other and tie.
The raspberry bent to the ground in winter will be under the snow
Diseases and pests
Hussars even in lazy gardeners rarely get sick, however, raspberries are absolutely resistant to all fungi and viruses. And this variety can wither away with the wrong agrotechnology (chlorosis due to irrigation with cold water, excess chlorine and lack of other substances) or from a dysfunctional neighborhood (late blight of the roots).Also from the strawberry plantation located nearby, weevil passes on raspberries. According to reviews of gardeners, Hussar also attracts the stem gall midge.
Diseases and pests characteristic of Hussar, how to fight - table
|Disease / pest||Description||Methods of struggle|
|Physiological chlorosis||The leaves turn yellow, remaining green only at the veins. Shoots grow thin and low. Berries, if tied, inedible: clumsy, small, dry.||
|Root Phytophthora||The disease often passes from a nearby potato field or falls on the plot with diseased seedlings. At different stages of development, different parts of the plant are affected.During flowering, the hearts of flowers wither and black, and the petals remain white. Ovaries grow ugly with a dry nose. On the ripe berries are visible light dents, similar to burns. Sick bushes become squat, the lower leaves fall, turn yellow, the side branches dry up. If you dig up such a bush, then you can see that the thin, fibrous roots have rotted away, the thick ones have become bald and pointed. On the section, the core of such a root is painted in red or brick color.||
|Raspberry-strawberry weevil||A black beetle 3-4 mm in size with a nose-proboscis first feeds on strawberries and grows on it the first generation. For breeding the second migrates to the late varieties of strawberries and raspberries. This happens in late June. The female gnaws the buds and lays eggs in them. The larvae feed on the contents, buds fall off without forming berries. The pest can kill up to 90% of the crop.||
|Stem gallitsa||An insect looks like a fly and a mosquito at the same time. Size - about 2 mm, body - black with a brown back, wings - transparent. During flowering, the female lays eggs on young shoots, at the base of the bud. The most obvious symptom is the bumps on the stem with a diameter of up to 2–3 cm. Up to 11 larvae develop in each nest. Pests feed on escape juices, which leads to its death. During the season only one generation of gall midges grows.||