Monsoon forests: description, climate, fauna and interesting facts
Monsoon forests it's hugegreenwithsucculentvegetation and rich fauna. In the rainy season, they resemble equatorialevergreenforests. Occurs in subequatorial and tropical climates. Attract tourists and photographers with a variety of scenic landscapes.
Wet monsoon forests are most common in the tropics. Most often they are at an altitude of 850 meters above sea level. They are called Deciduous because of the loss of treesfoliage during the drought. Heavy rains return to them their former juiciness and color. The trees here reach a height of twenty meters, the leaves on the crowns are small. Undergrowth is commonevergreenspecies, many lianas and epiphytes. Orchids grow in the monsoon zone. They are found in the Brazilian coastal mountain ranges, the Himalayas, Malaysia, Mexico, Indochina.
Monsoon forests in the Far East are famous for their variety of plants and animals. and wet summer, an abundance of plant foodscreate favorable conditions for the dwelling of insects, birds, mammals. Here there are coniferous and broad-leaved trees. Among the inhabitants of the forests are seen sable, squirrel, chipmunk, hazel grouse, as well as animals rare for the climatic zone of Russia. The characteristic inhabitants of the monsoonfield Ussurian tiger,the blackbear, Far Eastern cat, spotted deer, wolf, raccoon dog. There are a lot of wild boars, hares, moles, pheasants on the territory.Reservoirssubequatorialthe climate is rich in fish. Some species are under protection.
Rare orchids grow in the moist forests of Brazil, Mexico, Indochina. About sixty percent aresympodialspecies well known among florists.Red-yellowMonsoon soil is favorable for ficuses, palms, valuable species of trees. The most famous include teak, satin,grease, iron. For example, a banyan tree can form from its trunks Grove. In the Indian Botanical Garden grows a huge banyan, which has nearly two thousand (!) Trunks. The crown of the tree covers an area of twelve thousand square meters. Variable wet forests become habitats for bamboo bears (pandas), Japanese macaques, salamanders, tigers, leopards, poisonous insects and snakes.
What is the prevailing climate in monsoon forests? Winter here is mostly dry, summer is not hot, but . The period of drought laststhree fourmonth. The average air temperature is lower than in the humid tropics: an absolute minimum of -25 degrees, a maximum of 35 with a sign + The temperature difference is from eight to twelve degrees. A characteristic feature of the climate long rain showers in summer and their absence in winter. The difference between the two opposite seasons great.
Monsoon forests are known for their morning fogsand low clouds. That's why the air is so saturated with moisture. By noon the bright sun completely evaporates the moisture from the vegetation. In the second half of the day a hazy haze forms again in the forests. High humidity and cloudiness are held for a long period of time. In winter, precipitation also falls, but rarely.
ATsubequatorial Because of the precipitation of a large amount of precipitation andtheir uneven distribution, high contrast of temperatures, monsoon forests develop. On the territory of Russia, they grow in the Far East, have a complex terrain, a rich flora and fauna. There are wet forests in Indochina,Hindustan, onFilipinoIslands, in Asia, North and South America, Africa. Despite the long rainy seasons and prolonged drought, fauna in monsoon forest zones is poorer than in wet equatorial.
The most pronounced phenomenon is the monsoon onThe Indian continent, where the drought period is replaced by heavy rainfall, the duration of which can be seven months. Such a change of weather is characteristic of Indochina, Burma, Indonesia, Africa, Madagascar, northern and eastern Australia, Oceania. For example, in Indochina and the peninsulaHindustandry period in the forests lasts seven months (fromApril to October). Grow in large monsoon territories with trees with large crowns and a vault of irregular shape. Sometimes forests grow in tiers, which is especially noticeable from a height.
Monsoon moist soils are characterized by redshade, granular structure, insignificant content of humus. The soil is rich in useful microelements, such as iron and silicon. Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium in moist soil is very small. The territory of South-East Asia is dominated byyellow earthsandkrasnozems. Central Africa and South Asia are characterized by drychernozem. Interestingly, with the cessation of rainsis growingconcentration of humus in monsoon forests. Reserve one of the forms of wildlife conservation in a territory rich in valuable plants and animals. It is in the humid forests that many species of orchids occur.
Plants and animals
Monsoon forests in subequatorial climateHindustan, China, Indochina, Australia, America, Africa,The Far East (Russia) is characterized by a variety of fauna. For example, in South-East Asia teak trees are widespread in the variable-humid zones, as well as the Indochinese laurel and ebony. There are also bamboo, lianas,butea, cereals. Many trees in the forests are highly valued due to healthy and durable wood. For example, the bark of a teak is dense and resistant to destruction by termites and fungi. At the southern foot of the Himalayas growgreasyforests. In the monsoon areas of Central America, there are many thorny bushes. It grows in a humid climate and valuable tree.
Rapidly growing trees are widespread in the subequatorial climate. The palm trees, acacia, baobab, spurge,cecrops,entandrofragma, ferns, there are many other plant species andcolors. For a humid climatic zone is characterized by a large variety of birds and insects. In woods there are woodpeckers, parrots, toucans, termites, ants, butterflies. Among terrestrial animals are found in monsoonwoodlandsmarsupials, elephants, various members of the familyfeline, freshwater, amphibians, frogs, snakes. This world is truly bright and rich.