Phases of the menstrual cycle. Duration of the menstrual cycle
The female body undergoes cyclical changes. This can not boast of men. Each representative of the fair sex should have an idea of what a monthly cycle is, how long it lasts and what kind of division it has. If you still do not know, then it's time to get closer to the woman's body.
For a start it is worth saying that this period has a beginning and an end. The duration of the menstrual cycle is directly dependent on the hormonal background of the woman.
The first periods come in girls from 12 to 18 years. From now on, every month the body of the weaker sex will undergo cyclical changes. This happens thanks to the work of the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland. Also an important role in the duration of the female cycle is played by the ovaries.
Duration of the menstrual cycle
Women's cycle can have different lengths. While a woman is not planning a pregnancy, she rarely pays attention to the length of this period. However, the monthly cycle must always be carefully monitored.
It is worth noting that the first day of the cycle is considered to be the one when bleeding from the genital tract began. The last day is the day before the start of the new female period.
In a healthy woman, the duration of the menstrual cycle is on average four weeks. In some cases, there may be deviations in one direction or another. Cycle duration ranging from 21 to 35 days is considered normal.
At the same time, bleeding from the fair sex is moderate and lasts no more than seven days. The minimum period of bleeding should be three days.
A woman’s menstrual cycle is considered short when the period between the onset of the first and second menstruation is less than three weeks.
Quite often, women with a shorter cycle have hormonal diseases that need to be treated. Menstruation in this case lasts from one to five days.
Abnormally long is the period that has a length of more than 35 days. In this case, the representative of the weaker sex often faces problems of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Usually these diseases are expressed in hormone deficiency during this period. This leads to the inability to conceive a child.
The duration of menstrual bleeding in a long cycle can vary from a few days to two weeks. Adjustment in this case is necessary necessarily. Otherwise, more serious health problems may begin.
How is the cycle divided?
This period has two phases:
- 1 phase of the menstrual cycle;
- 2 phase of the menstrual cycle.
There is also a third period, but it comes only when conception occurs. The phases of the menstrual cycle are very different from each other.
The first part of the cycle
This period is called the follicular phase. This name is common and more well-known. There are also the following names: follicular, polyferativny period. This period of time lasts on average two weeks. But this value can range from one to three weeks.All this is a variant of the norm and does not require medical intervention.
The beginning of a given period of time takes when menstruation begins. From this point on, the pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone. It has a beneficial effect on the endometrium and helps to restore the inner layer of the reproductive organ after menstrual bleeding. FSH also has a tremendous effect on the ovaries. The growth of vesicles called follicles begins in these organs. Approximately by the middle of the cycle, one (rarely two or three) dominant vesicle is released, which later releases the egg cell.
In the first phase of the female cycle, most hormones are investigated. The material is collected from the third to the fifth day of this period.
It is worth noting that during this period, changes occur not only within the female body. The representative of the fair sex may note that the discharge from the genital tract is quite scarce and thick. Also at this time, the basal temperature is kept low. On average, the value on the thermometer ranges from 36 to 36.5 degrees.
The phases of the menstrual cycle change exactly when ovulation occurs. The pituitary gland during this period begins to actively produce luteinizing hormone.This substance affects the grown follicle, and the bubble is broken. It is from this second that the second phase of the menstrual cycle begins.
Second part of the cycle
As soon as the release of the egg from the ovary, the pituitary gland somewhat changes its work. At this point, it is the turn of the ovaries to release the desired substance. In the place where the dominant follicle was previously, a new vial is formed. It is called the yellow body. Such a neoplasm is necessary for the normal course of the female cycle. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone. This substance supports the vital activity of the egg and has a general effect on the entire body.
Also, after changing the phase of the menstrual cycle, an active growth of the inner shell of the reproductive organ begins. Blood circulation increases, and the vessels expand. The endometrial layer becomes larger every day and reaches its maximum approximately one week after ovulation. In the same period, the level of progesterone has the maximum value. If it is necessary to take an analysis and identify its quantity, then it should be done exactly one week after the follicle rupture.
Vaginal discharge in this period is creamy, and there are quite a lot of them. This is all completely normal and does not require treatment. The only exceptions are those cases when discharges are added to the discharge: itching, burning or pain. It is also necessary to see the doctor if the mucus has acquired an unpleasant odor or an unusual color. The basal temperature in this period increases from the moment of the rupture of the follicle. This is due to the effect of progesterone on the body. The average value of the thermometer is 37 degrees. In addition, a woman notes an increase and an increase in breast sensitivity.
In the event that fertilization has occurred, the third phase of the female period begins. In the absence of pregnancy, periods of the menstrual cycle are replaced again, and menstruation begins.
The duration of the second phase is from ten to fourteen days. It does not affect the duration of the cycle. Different variations may be due to the discrepancy of the first half of the female period. If the progesterone phase has fewer days than 10, then this indicates a hormone deficiency.In this case, the woman needs to undergo an examination and begin a course of taking corrective medications.
Violation of the duration of the female cycle
As mentioned earlier, the cycle can be long or short. Any abnormality must be treated.
It is also worth noting that the female period should always be stable. The discrepancy in the duration of the cycle should be no more than three days. For example, if a woman has a period of 25 days, then this is normal. But if next month this period is 32 days, then this is a deviation and a failure in the body.
Sometimes a failure in the cycle can occur due to the formation of functional cysts. There is nothing wrong with that. Most often, these tumors resolve themselves. If this phenomenon occurs quite often, then the woman needs to explore the phases of the menstrual cycle. This can be done with a blood test. Labs will determine the level of hormones in your body and will give the result.
Treatment of violations of the duration of the female cycle
Most often, hormonal preparations are selected for correction.
If a woman is planning a pregnancy, then she is prescribed medication to support the second phase. They also have a beneficial effect on hormones that are produced by the pituitary gland. Most often, doctors recommend injections "Progesterone", vaginal suppositories "Utrozhestan" or "Duphaston" pills.
In the case when the representative of the fair sex does not plan to give birth in the near future, she may be advised to take oral contraceptives. Depending on the results of the study of hormonal background, the doctor may prescribe tablets "Diane-35", "Logest", "Novinet" and others. These drugs in our time a great many. A competent specialist will select what is right for you.
If you have a broken menstrual cycle, do not delay the time, but go to an appointment with a doctor. Perhaps now you need only a slight hormonal correction. In the event that you start the disease, irreparable problems with women's health can begin.
In the case of pregnancy planning, it is necessary to know in advance everything about the phases of the menstrual cycle, their duration and properties.In this case, your baby will not be long in coming, and conception will take place soon.
Keep track of your well-being and be always healthy!