Reaction to DTP and poliomyelitis in children at 3 months, at 1.5 years. Reaction to DTP manifests itself after what time, how long does it take?
Currently, all parents of the world are divided into two camps. The reason for this is one important question: should the child be vaccinated? Between these two groups of people lies a huge gulf of misunderstanding. Those who are opposed to vaccinations, contrary to common sense, fear the negative effects of the vaccine. Having read horrors in the reviews of some parents, moms and dads become ardent opponents of the vaccine itself.
Do not forget that the worst reaction to the vaccine may occur once in several million cases.
That's great rarity. However, if an unvaccinated child or an adult who has not been vaccinated on time has dangerous contact with the causative agent of a terrible disease, then infection will occur instantaneously.The consequences of the disease can be the most serious, sometimes even lethal.
What is DTP?
One of the most common vaccines in the world is DTP. How is this abbreviation? This combination of characters is nothing but the first letters of the name of the vaccine: adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus. This vaccine protects the human body from the three most dangerous infections. For young children, whose body has not yet learned how to fully defend themselves against serious diseases, these diseases can be fatal. That is why DPT vaccination is prescribed for a child in 2-3 months.
Despite the obvious need to vaccinate children from terrible diseases, some parents do not want to do it, citing the refusal of their concern for the health and lives of their offspring. The thing is that the reaction to DTP in children is quite noticeable. As for the vaccine itself, it is rather difficult to tolerate. Among the rest of vaccinations that make the child according to the calendar, DTP, of course, is the most difficult. This is due to the anti-pertussis component, which is most difficult for the body to perceive.And many parents are afraid that as a result of post-vaccination complication the child will become disabled or will not survive at all. But it is worth reassuring caring moms and dads so that the likelihood of such cases is negligible. To bring to parents information about the importance of this vaccine, it is worth telling what consequences their unfounded fears may lead to.
Why is it necessary to get vaccinated?
Whooping cough, tetanus and diphtheria are very dangerous diseases for young children. Whooping cough is terrible for its complications, including pneumonia and encephalopathy. When the convulsive cough characteristic of the disease, can stop breathing. After the vaccination has been done, antibodies begin to be produced in the body and an immune memory is formed. Later, if the child meets with the causative agent of whooping cough, diphtheria or tetanus, his defenses will be able to give a fitting response to these infections. Immunity of a vaccinated child will work like a clock.
Tetanus and diphtheria are dangerous because their complications are not related to microorganisms, but to their toxins. They carry great danger. DPT vaccine is designed to develop anti-toxic immunity in a growing body.
Such terrible complications are likely to develop in children who have suffered these diseases. Therefore, the response to DTP can not be compared with the fact that an unvaccinated child can undergo contact with three terrible infections.
This drug is administered by intramuscular injection. This method does not give the vaccine instantly absorbed into the blood and provides long-term production of antibodies in childhood and adulthood.
The special feature of DTP is that it is done according to a specific scheme, in compliance with the intervals.Repeat vaccinations at certain time intervals need throughout life. The vaccination scheme is as follows:
- for the first time - in 2-3 months;
- again - in 4-5 months;
- the third time is at 6 months.
Three of these vaccinations should be done with a mandatory interval of 30 days between each of them. Since the immunization schedules for this drug coincide with the polio vaccine, they are usually done together. There is even a special drug that combines all four components. But most often the polio vaccine looks like a drop. They are dripping into the baby’s mouth.In fairness it is worth noting that the response to DTP and polio is different from each other. The last vaccine is easily tolerated and usually does not produce any side effects.
The next time, when the child is 1.5 years old, the DPT vaccine is repeated. This four-step vaccination gives the child complete immunity to tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough. Further vaccinations are done with the acellular or acellular form of the pertussis component. This vaccine is called ADS and is much easier to tolerate. Vaccination produce:
- in 6-7 years;
- at the age of 14 and then every 10 years of life: at 24, 34, 44, etc.
According to statistics, 75% of the adult population of the Russian Federation do not receive revaccination of ADF and do not even suspect that this should be done. However, it is very important. Tetanus in our time is a terrible disease. This is especially true for lovers of long-distance travel.
But what if the revaccination schedule is lost? The World Health Organization argues that starting in this case the whole cycle does not make sense. The main thing is to restore the lost stage and not to get more from the schedule.
Types of DPT Vaccine
To date, there are several certified DTP vaccines. All are authorized by WHO. It often happens that the first vaccination is made from a drug of one manufacturer, repeated - from another. According to WHO, this is not a big deal, since all these vaccines successfully replace each other.
By quality, there are two types of DPT vaccine:
- The most common and cheap. It is called classic and is most popular in the underdeveloped countries with a low standard of living. The composition of such a vaccine includes undigested and crude pertussis component. It is because of it that children have a reaction to DPT.
- Another variety is called AADS. It is the most modern and, of course, expensive analogue of the DPT vaccine in the classic version. In it, the pertussis component is cleaned and split into its component parts. A big plus of such a vaccine is that it is transferred much more easily and practically does not cause undesirable reactions.
It should be clearly understood that the reaction to DTP is temporary and takes place without harmful consequences for the body. The transferred disease can threaten with horrific complications of a child’s health, which can disturb his whole life.
How is the vaccination done correctly?
This vaccine is given intramuscularly. But not every part of the body can be suitable for vaccination. WHO recommends that DPT vaccine be administered to young children only in the thigh. This is justified by the fact that the muscles in this part of the body are best developed in a baby at the age of two months. There are fewer blood vessels and subcutaneous fat, which can not be said about the buttocks. This rule has a legislative basis and was introduced in 2008 in an official document entitled “Sanitary-epidemiological rules. Ensuring the safety of immunization. It clearly prescribed: "Intramuscular injections to children of the first years of life are carried out only in the upper outer thigh." Since the age of 6, children can be vaccinated in the shoulder zone.
What is the response to DPT vaccination?
The response to DPT in children may look different. In the most favorable case, your baby will not show any alarming symptoms. This means that after the injection, nothing has changed in the behavior and in the state of the child.
But not always everything is so cloudless, and children often have the following manifestations after vaccination:
- Loss of appetite.Digestive disorders in the form of vomiting and diarrhea.
- The injection site becomes red, more dense and there is swelling. The child often touches the sore spot, letting the parents know that it is bothering him.
- The changing mood and uncharacteristic behavior of the child is also a kind of reaction to DPT. The temperature that has risen on the background of vaccination can turn a calm baby into a capricious and irritable one.
- A reverse picture can also be observed: a cheerful and agile crumb becomes sluggish and drowsy.
The well-known children's pediatrician EO Komarovsky answered the question: “How long does the reaction to DPT manifest in a child?” Answers the following: “All negative post-vaccination phenomena in a baby appear on the first day after the injection. If your baby is then depressed, he has a runny nose, diarrhea or drowsiness, and all this happened 2-4 days after the injection, then DTP cannot be blamed here. All this is more likely the consequences of a rotavirus caught up in the clinic of an acute respiratory disease. ”
Many doctors agree with this statement. Regarding how long the reaction to DPT lasts, doctors say: all side effects manifest themselves in the first day after vaccination.The next 2-3 days there is an improvement. It does not require serious medical intervention.
However, if the reaction to DTP in a child acquires warning signs, you should immediately seek medical help. Show concern if:
- the body temperature of the child crosses the line at 39 ° C;
- the injection site is significantly swollen (more than 8-10 cm in circumference);
- the child has a strong and continuous crying, which lasts more than 3 hours.
In this situation there is a risk of dehydration of the baby’s body.
What to do when reacting to DTP?
Often the response to DTP in 3 months is manifested in an increase in temperature. Typically, pediatricians do not recommend giving antipyretic drugs at a rate below 38.5 ˚C. However, this rule does not apply to the post-vaccination period. If you notice a slight fever in your baby, then immediately give him a febrifuge. Tighten and wait for the critical point can not be. The aforementioned doctor Komarovsky says that Paracetamol and Ibufen in the form of syrup and candles are the best medicines for a child at an elevated temperature.If these drugs are ineffective, you should consult a doctor.
Consolidation of the injection site, its swelling and edema is also a very common reaction to DPT. Photos of such consequences frighten parents the most.If the nurse has correctly injected, then there should be no visual manifestations in the form of a bump and swelling. However, there are situations when the drug does not get into the muscle, but into the subcutaneous fat layer. It is in this case that the swelling, thickening and swelling are most often formed. If you see this effect in your baby after vaccination, you should show it to the doctor. He prescribes special safe for the child medical drugs that increase blood circulation and relieve swelling.
Do not panic with a slight swelling in the injection area. During vaccination, weakened cells of the pathogen are introduced, and a regular physiological process of local inflammation occurs. This is a local reaction to DTP. Usually it goes away without medical intervention in 1-2 weeks.
Often after the injection, there is redness of the skin and itching at the injection site.If the radius of the skin with a changed color does not exceed 2-4 cm, then it enters the norm. This is explained by a slight inflammation as a result of the body's immune response. If other aspects are normal, then do not worry. Redness will disappear without a trace in 8-10 days.
It is worth noting that usually the response to DTP at 1.5 years is weaker than after the first vaccinations. The child is already strong and his immunity easily cope with the vaccine. However, do not lose your vigilance and carefully monitor the condition of the child in a critical period.
Dangerous body reactions to DPT vaccine
Medical statistics have data that per 100,000 vaccinated DTP injections have one to two babies from serious consequences that can cause poor health. This probability is extremely small, but still it is worth pointing out such complications. These include:
- Severe allergy to one of the components of the vaccine or to all three of its components. Extreme manifestations - anaphylactic shock and angioedema.
- The temperature does not rise, but the child has cramps.
- The temperature has risen, and the child has neurological disorders.This is due to the effect of the pertussis component on the lining of the brain.
It is worth mentioning again that this is a very rare reaction to DTP.What if you suspect one of these symptoms from your child after vaccination? Without any doubt and delay, contact an ambulance.
However, it is worth reassuring parents in numbers. There are statistics of occurrence in children of the reaction to DTP of varying degrees of severity:
- increased body temperature, redness and swelling of the injection site - in 25% of children;
- loss of appetite, drowsiness and lethargy, indigestion and intestinal disorders - in 10% of babies.
- convulsions - 1 child out of 14,500;
- strong crying for 3 or more hours - 1 out of 1,000 babies;
- body temperature over 39.5 ˚C - 1 child out of 15,000.
- severe allergic reactions - 1 out of a million children;
- Neurological disorders are so rare that modern medicine does not connect them with the DPT vaccine.
The most serious reaction to DTP occurs during the first 20 minutes after vaccination. That is why the doctor recommends that you wait for this time period and show the injection site for examination and evaluation of the reaction.
The incidence of serious complications in children increases by 3000 times, if you completely abandon the vaccine and get sick with one of three serious diseases.
As mentioned above, often, along with DTP vaccination, the child also receives the polio vaccine at the same time. The schedules of these two immunizations are the same, and doctors are used to combining them. Confused parents sometimes do not know the difference between the response to DTP and polio, if they are carried out simultaneously. Usually, the last vaccine is very well tolerated and, in extreme cases, can cause a slight indigestion. It is also worth noting that the substances contained in the immunization drug against poliomyelitis also contribute to an increase in the body's resistance to intestinal infections. If a child has a small digestive disturbance with joint vaccination, then after that time, after how much the reaction to DTP subsides, that is, after a few days, the gastrointestinal tract will return to work.
Contraindications for DTP
There are certain circumstances that make it impossible to vaccinate against pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus.In these cases, vaccination is either not carried out at all, or is postponed for a certain time.These circumstances include:
- exacerbation of any disease;
- the presence of allergies to at least one of the components of the vaccine;
- immunological reactivity or immunodeficiency.
How to reduce the likelihood of a negative reaction to DTP?
Despite the fact that DPT vaccination is one of the most difficult for children to perceive, it is impossible to refuse it. This threatens the child with dangerous infections and their consequences. Parents can prepare a child's body so that he endured the vaccine as painlessly as possible. To do this, do the following:
- 2 days before the upcoming vaccination, when a child has diathesis or allergies, it is necessary to give him an antihistamine at the usual dosage. In this case, the response to DTP in 3 months and at any other age will be minimal.
- Directly on the day of vaccination, the most important event is the prevention of hyperemia. To do this, the baby immediately after vaccination will need to put a candle with a febrifuge, even if his temperature has not increased.A child older than six months can be given a drug in the form of syrup. Throughout the day, you need to carefully monitor the temperature and be sure to give a febrifuge at night. Dosage of drugs should be discussed with a pediatrician before vaccination.
- On the day after vaccination, it is necessary to continue to control the temperature. With a tendency to increase it should be given a febrifuge. It is necessary to provide the baby with light meals and plenty of warm drinks. In the nursery, you need to maintain an optimum temperature of 21 ° C and humidity of 60-75%.
Get vaccinated or get sick? What is better for immunity?
Some adults are of the opinion that the immunity acquired as a result of the disease is more effective than a vaccine. This opinion is incorrect. It is absolutely not applicable to such infectious diseases as whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus. The last two diseases of immunization do not give the body. The transferred pertussis gives natural protection to the body for 6-10 years. However, at what cost this sad experience will cost! Vaccination DTP provides comprehensive immunity from all three infections for a period of 6 to 10 years without any dangerous health effects. So vaccination is the only sure way to protect the body from dangerous diseases.