Rural settlements of Russia: from the start to the municipality
Historians claim that the first prototypes of modern villages, farms, villages and villages appeared about ten thousand years ago at the peak of the development of agriculture. Such rural settlements had a small size. Only about a hundred people lived in them. Most often, public parking lots had the shape of a circle and consisted of several rings. The outer belt was formed by large structures, the inner one - huts. The center was used for pasture cattle and public gatherings.
Campground - the invention of the nomadic tribes. Its geometry was strikingly different from the arrangement of villages of sedentary nations. The yurts of the Asians were set up in rows. At that time, rural settlements were not yet divided into zones in accordance with the social and social differences between the inhabitants. All tents had approximately the same size and appearance.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was customary to call any place in the town a repair in Russia. Having emerged once, it grew and eventually turned into a village.This term was first used in the annals dating back to the 15th century. A single yard, which was also called the borrower, could give him a start. Most often, such rural settlements were located in close proximity to the ancestral village near a lake or other body of water.
There are several dozen types of villages concentrated in Europe. To the category of large belong settlements and villages, to the category of small - farms, settlements and farms. They differed not only in the number of inhabitants, but also in the device. There was a nuclear, cumulus and linear layout.
Some camps were concentrated around the similarity of the square, on which later church and church appeared in the municipalities of western countries. Others were a randomly installed residential and ancillary buildings. Sometimes among them stood family nests. A striking example of a linear arrangement are Russian repairs, which consisted of a single street that stretched along a path.
Settlements of the Russian Federation
In Russia, municipal rural settlements are places of permanent residence and management of citizens of the Russian Federation.In our country, their affiliation to a particular type does not depend on the total number of inhabitants and the density of buildings. Instead, there is a factor of employment in one form or another of the national economy.
The village of Kanevskaya is the largest settlement of this type. It is located in the Krasnodar Territory. More than 44,000 people are registered in it.
All rural settlements of the region have their own administrative apparatus. In the framework of the census held in 2010, a little more than 153,000 villages, winter houses, villages, uluses, journeys, collective farms, state farms and farms were recorded. At the same time, 20,000 of them were abandoned.
The activities performed by the administration of a rural settlement are governed by the charter, which gives its members a number of powers. It specifies the duration of the mandates, reporting options, the conditions of the organization and the functions of the management of the municipal entity. The competence of the apparatus are organizational and financial issues, the execution of the local budget, participation in economic and civil legal relations.
The administration of a rural settlement is governed by a mayor or head. In the process of secret voting or as a result of a direct appointment, he is elected for four years. Subject to directives, a new director must be approved for his position no later than the second Sunday of September of that year in which his predecessor’s powers expire. Changes in the structure and principles of management were introduced in 2006. In addition, new definitions were introduced, including the concept of a "city manager".
Rights and duties of the chapter:
- representation of the rural territory entrusted to him in the bodies of the district, regional and territorial administrations;
- signing regulations;
- drawing up regulations;
- creation of legal documents;
- distribution of financial flows;
- economic activity;
- the solution of issues related to the life of the settlement and its registered population.
The leadership is actively engaged in educational work. Organizes and holds meetings with students and schoolchildren, young people, employees of agricultural enterprises and retirees.