Scientific knowledge and methods of scientific research
Scientific research is a holistic structure of related facts, attitudes and ideas. His fundamental difference from the knowledge of the ordinary is a critical understanding of the proposed ideas and evidence, the desire for an objective view, a strict methodology both in the knowledge itself and in verifying the facts obtained.
Or the criterion of falsifiability (in other words). Its author is Karl Popper - the famous British thinker of our time. The criterion is the impossibility or possibility of testing the theory experimentally. For example: among the many predictions of Michel Nostradamus we can detect various real plots of the history of entire nations. And yet, it is not possible to practically verify whether they are really foresight or banal coincidences. Especially when you consider that such plots are written in an allegorical form and the similarity is always found only after the events.Many fuzzy formulations of humanitarian concepts create a similar problem. At the same time, let's assume for a moment that the firmament is a solid body.Despite the absurdity of such a statement in our day, it could well be considered a truly scientific theory (another thing that is instantly refuted).
Basic research methods
Any activity of a scientific nature should not only assume the criteria for experimental verification of ideas, but also an effective methodology for finding new facts and constructing theories. Methods of scientific research in economics, physics or any other science are usually divided into empirical and theoretical. Each of them has its own methodology and special techniques. Now we will consider them.
Research Methods: Empirical
In this category, cognition is represented mainly by sensual forms. The study here combines the totality of the ideas that arise in a person thanks to his organs: touch, contemplation, the sense of smell and sound. However, it is important to notethat empirical knowledge occurs not only through human sensations, but also through special tools or instruments designed to measure and obtain accurate facts that are inaccessible to people's senses: thermometers, microscopes, measuring containers, quantum particle accelerators, and so on.
Empirical methods of scientific research
Research Methods: Theoretical
Actually, the ultimate goal of such a heap of empirical facts is their systematization and further derivation of the laws. Theoretical research is a definite logical abstraction, created through the derivation of theories and scientific hypotheses based on existing knowledge. This is the creation of several more global constructions, some elements of which are often unknown to the empirical observer.
Theoretical methods of scientific research: a variety of options
- Mental modulation.
- System method