Secondary immunodeficiency in children. Secondary immunodeficiency symptoms and treatment
Immunity is given to man for the disposal of foreign bodies that enter the body and cause a number of diseases. When a threatening situation, it activates all the body's defenses to fight infection and viruses. In addition, immunity has a peculiarity - the recording in memory of information about alien bodies with which he came across. When re-entering the microorganism, it will react instantly and prevent their reproduction. The reduction of this process is called immunodeficiency, and it is primary and secondary.
Children are at risk of immunodeficiency, since their bodies are not yet sufficiently developed and adapted to different viruses and dangerous microorganisms. Primary immunological deficiency manifests itself from birth and lasts a lifetime, therefore it is not as common as secondary immunodeficiency. In children, treatment begins with the elimination of the cause.Having got rid of the disease, they prescribe a course of immunomodulatory therapy.
Secondary immunodeficiency. What is it and how is it manifested?
Often the cause of many diseases is impaired immunity, so you should understand what it is and how it manifests itself.
Secondary immunodeficiency is a pathology that is acquired during life under the influence of external environmental factors, infections of various kinds, frequent use of medicines, chronic diseases, radiation, and an unhealthy lifestyle. Pathology is not a defect caused by gene changes, and is successfully treated.
Symptoms of secondary immunodeficiency in children
Children with this disease are prone to infection and generalization. The kind of disease does not matter. This may be both primary and secondary immunodeficiency. Their symptoms manifest themselves in such malformations:
- Abnormal reaction to vaccination.
- Underdevelopment of soft and hard tissues (hypoplasia).
- Systematic diarrhea.
- Diseases of the lymphatic system.
- Allergy, manifested on the skin.
- Autoimmune disorders, where the immune system mistakenly damages healthy cells, not antigens.
- Hematological problem.
- Fungal diseases.
As can be seen, secondary immunodeficiency, the symptoms of which are determined by general weakness, manifests itself in a protective reaction to the introduction of the antigen of bacteria and viruses.
What contributes to the development of pathology in children?
There are two main factors that lead to the development of immunological deficiency:
- External environment. If a child lives in a place of polluted and radioactive air, undergoes frequent microwave radiation and ionization, takes medicines for a long time, then the metabolism will soon break down and lead to a weakening of immunity.
- Internal causes of the body. These include various kinds of infections, neoplasms, diseases, and more. Consider them in order.
These are diseases caused by bacterial and viral infections that cause serious damage to the body. The causes of secondary immunodeficiencies lie in the inability of the immune system to respond in a timely manner to the penetration of infection, the body's sensitivity to antigens and toxins increases, the blood formation process slows down. Such diseases include: herpes, staphylo-and pneumococcosis, toxoplasmosis, ascardiosis, rubella, HIV, etc.
In young children it is not easy to determine, especially in infants, since it is fluid in nature. For an infant, normal emptyings are those that are not absorbed in the diaper, up to 8 times a day (for children under one year - 5 times; after two years - up to 3 times). Diarrhea is dangerous loss of minerals, proteins, electrolytes.
The child has a partial loss of clarity and coordination. This condition is caused by chronic diseases, such as diabetic ketoacidosis.
At the moment of this state, the immune system quickly activates all forces, after which exhaustion occurs. After stress, the normal indicator of immunity falls and leads to diseases of the nervous system.
Neoplasms in the form of malignant tumors
When leukemia, where children and adolescents are at risk, there is an increased number of immune cells that do not work, and therefore do not protect the body. The spread of metastasis of tumors in the red bone marrow is already due to reduced immunity, and the more it loses its function, the more metastasis.
Infrequent consumption of food or violation of the regime reduces the body's resistance to harmful antigens. Secondary immunodeficiency in children is observed due to the lack of vitamins, minerals, nutrients, disrupts the work of all organs, depriving them of the necessary energy for normal work, since it is the child that especially needs the correct diet as a growing organism.
Impaired immunity functionality
It leads to autoimmune diseases (psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, autoimmune enteropathy, chronic active hepatitis, biliary cirrhosis and others). In such diseases, tissue and organs are destroyed.
Big blood loss
The cause develops due to the loss of blood plasma or proteins that are in it. After blood loss, both humoral (protection of extracellular spaces) and cellular (provision with lymphocytes) immunity are reduced.
Secondary immunodeficiency in children can cause diseases such as diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis (an increase in hormones that disrupt thyroid function), hypothyroidism and, as a result, extreme cretinism (thyroid gland dysfunction based on a decrease in their hormones).Due to the disease, the process of tissue division and energy is reduced.
Surgical intervention and severe injuries
Secondary immunodeficiency occurs after surgery or injury. During this period, a large amount of adrenal hormones is produced.
Acceptance of serious medicinal groups of anticancer drugs and steroid hormones. Secondary immunodeficiency in children, the treatment of which is performed according to the physiological characteristics of the body, makes itself felt immediately after taking such drugs.
There are three forms of secondary immunodeficiency state:
1. Acquired. Secondary acquired immunodeficiencies develop due to a decrease in T-lymphocytes and can manifest themselves in such diseases as measles, hepatitis B, influenza, polio, HIV infection, contributing to the development of AIDS.
2. Induced. Caused by some reason, such as the intake of strong drugs and steroids, diabetes, cancer, X-rays, injuries, operations. In general, everything that can affect the body of the child by external negative factors.
3. Spontaneous.There is no obvious cause of immune deficiency in this form, but it is manifested by chronic diseases and inflammatory processes of the respiratory system. Children with frequent relapses of diseases that are not amenable to standard treatment, have secondary immunodeficiency syndrome. The spontaneous form of ID is manifested in many children and is accompanied by a violation of different parts of the immune system.
Classification of acquired IDs
The classification of secondary immunodeficiencies was developed Meshkovym V.Ya. and has the following form:
1. The pace of development of immunodeficiency.
- Acute. It develops after injuries, the effects of toxins and various kinds of infection.
- Chronic. Caused by purulent, inflammatory processes in the body, tumors, autoimmune diseases, viruses.
- Disruption of cellular immunity. The repression suppression process (copying of gene information) of the virus and the work of white blood cells that fight infections are failing.
- Violation of humoral immunity. It is based on antibody proteins that interact with antigens, inhibiting their viability in the extracellular space, as well as blood.If antibodies are disrupted, immunity decreases dramatically.
- Disruption of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Suppression of the process of physiological protection of the system of cells that exist for the absorption and digestion of a foreign body.
- Violation of the complement system. Inhibition of the activation pathways of protein components of plasma and interstitial tissue.
- Combined vices. Combined secondary immunodeficiency, the causes of which are rooted in fetal and genetic diseases, is characterized by a rare form and severe treatment. If treatment has not been prescribed, children die before the age of one.
3. The spread of immunodeficiency.
In addition, there is a transient class of secondary immunity, the treatment of which is not required. It is highly recommended that only specialist supervision.
Secondary immunodeficiency (ICD-10) is determined by a system of headings, where painful conditions are introduced according to certain criteria. Position is determined in accordance with statistical data and has the following level:
> D50-D89 - Diseases of the blood, blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism.
> D80-D89 - Certain disorders involving the immune mechanism.
> D84 - Other immunodeficiencies.
> D84.8 - Other specified immunodeficiency disorders.
Diagnosis of ID in children
Secondary immunodeficiency, the treatment of which is prescribed by a doctor, is diagnosed after receiving data on the state of health, complaints of the child and his relatives lately. Also carried out a visual inspection of the skin and tactile contact to determine the size of the internal organs and organs of the lymphatic system.
A clinical picture of the blood test is required, where the number of cells responsible for immunity will be indicated.
Secondary immunodeficiency. Treatment
What distinguishes the second form of immunodeficiency from the first, so it is the severity of system disorders. Usually it has a small character of manifestation. In a mild form, immunity can recover itself, and in a more severe form, first determine the cause of such a pathology, eliminate it, and then take action to raise the immunity. It is especially important to know the amount of proteins in the blood that help the body cope with bacteria and infections.
Molecular genetic research is also important.
If a child with a primary immunodeficiency was born in the family, then during repeated pregnancy the mother recommends prenatal diagnosis of the fetus, which will help in the early periods to obtain information about a possible defect in the genes.
Secondary immunodeficiency in children, the treatment of which is aimed at raising the body's defenses, is sometimes manifested in an insufficient amount of antibodies. Their function is to recognize alien material and destroy it. Then the child must be immunoprotected with a dead vaccine.
If the child is infected with fungal or bacterial infections, then treatment should be prescribed to eliminate them, preferably during the initial development period.
During the treatment of chest disease caused by various viruses and infections, physical exercises and physiotherapy are required in medical institutions.
In case of violation of cellular immunity, or rather T-cells, bone marrow transplantation is prescribed.
Usually, the first stage in the treatment of secondary immunodeficiency is the most harmless option for the body. This is the introduction of immunoglobulins by subcutaneous or intravenous method.
Not be superfluous preventive measures taken for the child: a healthy lifestyle and sleep, proper nutrition with vitamins and minerals, protection from infections.
Secondary immunodeficiency is a pathology that occurs during the life of a child, which is the result of many diseases, inflammatory processes, the influence of chemical, radioactive substances, injuries, unstable mental state. The most common cause of immunodeficiency is inadequate and unhealthy diet, where a chemical element such as iron is completely absent. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are also a common cause of immune pathology.
Immunity stimulation today is not a problem. There are sera and vaccines that help the formation of immunity to disease without direct contact with the pathogen. Doing this practice significantly reduces the death rate.
The most dangerous immunodeficiency is AIDS because it has similar symptoms with the symptoms of acute respiratory infections and flu. It dramatically reduces the body's resistance to various pathogens, which leads to the death of the child.
In any case, feeling the child’s discomfort, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician.