Signs of bronchitis
In the lungs the air passes through the respiratory tract: the trachea and bronchial tree. Bronchitis is an inflammatory process that develops in the bronchi. This disease is the most common among respiratory diseases and can be combined with another pathology. Acute bronchitis is not uncommon, but in smokers with experience and under the influence of other adverse factors, this process becomes chronic.
Types of bronchitis
Acute and chronic bronchitis
The acute form is characterized by edema of the bronchial mucosa, dilation of blood vessels and their overflow with blood. An exudate appears on the inner surface of the bronchi. It is an inflammatory fluid that contains protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells. In a severe form of the disease, the damage spreads from the surface layers of the bronchi to the deep layers and to the adjacent lung tissue. In chronic bronchitis, lesions occur in all structural elements of the bronchi, as well as in the tissues of the lungs.
Under the obstruction of the bronchi understand the spasm of their smooth muscles, the narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, compression of them from the outside. With obstructive bronchitis, spasm and narrowing of the bronchi occurs. Because of this, the mucus that has accumulated in them cannot come out. With obstructive bronchitis, the person feels that it is difficult for him to breathe.
Causes of bronchitis
- Viruses that cause SARS and flu.
- Secondary bacterial infection - leads to infectious bronchitis.
- Substances that can irritate the lungs: toxins, dust, smoke, ammonia, various chemicals.
- Chronic sinusitis.
Symptoms of bronchitis
Signs of acute bronchitis
Infectious bronchitis is a common occurrence in the winter period of time, when the airways are affected by dampness and low air temperature. The first signs of bronchitis are similar to the symptoms of an ordinary cold: an increase in fatigue, a feeling of sore throat, and after a period of time a cough appears. First, cough is usually dry. Then, wet with expectoration of yellow or green sputum. Body temperature may rise slightly, but in the case of severe forms of bronchitis reaches critical numbers.
When the first signs of the disease appear, treatment should be discussed with the doctor.If symptoms increase, as recommended by your doctor, you should undergo a chest X-ray to exclude pneumonia, since it is a serious complication of bronchitis.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis, unlike acute, can last from several months to several years. It is characterized by a wet cough and sputum. Such signs of bronchitis with each exacerbation last longer. The main cause of chronic bronchitis is exposure to the lungs of harmful substances, which include cigarette smoke. It is smoking that is considered as the most common cause of chronic bronchitis. To give up smoking is a prerequisite for the success of treatment of this disease, which can lead to serious complications.
The manifestations of the disease depend on the pathological processes that predominate in the airways. Symptoms of bronchitis in adults: in chronic cases, when sputum production prevails, a wet cough appears. In acute infectious processes of viral etiology, when the inflammatory edema is increasing, the cough is dry.
With constant exposure to the lungs of irritating substances, inflammation goes into the process of hardening, the lungs lose their elasticity, shortness of breath increases during physical exertion, and with a devastating effect pulmonary emphysema develops. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema often accompany each other.
Signs of obstructive bronchitis
Obstructive bronchitis is diagnosed in children in the case when there is difficulty breathing and whistling during expiration, which can be heard from a distance. In addition, the following signs of bronchitis are observed in children: dry rales, involvement of auxiliary muscles during breathing.
The cough may be intense or weak, depending on the stage of the disease. Violated the general well-being of the child. During exacerbation, body temperature rises. With a disease duration of more than one month, such bronchitis is referred to as a protracted form. Complications of obstructive bronchitis include runny nose and ear inflammation. Inflammation of the lungs is the most common complication of bronchitis.