Some characteristics of the processor
The basis of any computer system is a small chip, called the central processor. Despite its small size (the crystal area is often less than 10 mm. Square.), It is he who is responsible for processing commands and managing all internal devices of the computer as a whole.Sometimes the microprocessor is compared with the human brain: although this analogy is too simplified, it can really be used with certain reservations. The main developers of these microcircuits used in laptops and personal computers are two companies - Intel and AMD. Although the system of commands used is identical (with rare exceptions), processor characteristics are different for different developers. Consider this point in more detail.
Frequency of operation
One of the main parameters of any microcircuit is its frequency. The unit of measurement is hertz. The higher this value is, the more productive is the model and, as a result, the entire computer.In modern solutions, the frequency is measured in gigahertz. In this regard, the characteristics of the processor can be indicated as follows: “Celeron G440; 1.6 GHz or AMD FX-8120; Socket AM3 +; BOX; 8-core; 3100Mhz. In the first case, the clock frequency is 1.6 gigahertz, and in the second - 3100. If we talk about the physical meaning of this parameter, it indicates the number of elementary operations that can be performed by the processor in one second.
Considering the characteristics of the processor, you can not leave without proper attention to the system bus. This element of the system sets the overall rhythm of work. On the motherboard there is a special chip-generator, which forms the so-called reference frequency. For example, in the production of Intel Sandy Bridge series, it is 100 MHz. But the processor frequency is obtained by multiplying the reference value by a certain factor. For low-speed peripheral buses to which additional devices are connected, the divider is used, on the contrary. Thus, the PCI speed of 33 MHz is obtained by dividing 100 by a factor of 3. The frequency of the system bus of the processor is also connected to the reference through a multiplier: in modern models of Intel microprocessors, the QPB bus is used, which, thanks to the multiplier, is capable of transmitting more data per cycle.By the way, users who are looking for an answer to the question of how to change the frequency of the processor, it will be interesting to know that the reference frequency is changeable. This function is implemented by the chipset and BIOS. By increasing its value, you can improve overall performance, and by reducing it, you can reduce energy consumption.
In addition to frequencies, processor models differ in the number of processing cores. Than their more, so, as a rule, better performance. Improving the manufacturing process of microcircuits allowed to place two or more processors on a common substrate-base. Such solutions are rational to use in applications that can not only create multiple data streams, but also effectively distribute them between the cores.
Speaking about what are the characteristics of the processor, you should indicate the level of power consumption. As a rule, the newer the model, the less electricity per unit of time it needs.
We have indicated only some characteristics. Their complete list is much larger; it cannot be reviewed in a single article.So, an interested person should become familiar with the concepts of CISC and RISC, TDP, socket, supply voltage, etc.