Tablets for reducing pressure: an overview of drugs
affects a third of the population of our planet. When blood pressure rises, nausea, vomiting and other negative reactions appear. Significantly increases the likelihood of death in cardiovascular pathologies. To cure hypertension, pills are prescribed to reduce pressure.
What is elevated pressure?
Increased blood pressure is considered the indicator of the tonometer 140/90 and higher in the population of different ages. In one case, doctors recommend changing lifestyles, reducing body weight, applying a diet, in the other - doctors prescribe pills to reduce pressure.
There are special patients who, in addition to hypertension, have diseases of the endocrine system, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or pathology of the cardiovascular apparatus. Such people need constant medical supervision and well-designed combination therapy.
The appearance of hypertension is affected by many factors, the main ones are:
- Tonus of vessels. The more they spasm, the greater the pressure.
- The amount of circulating blood.Large volumes of plasma in the vessels increase blood pressure.
- The functioning of the heart organ.
Before prescribing drugs, the doctor assesses the severity of the patient’s condition, the risk of possible complications, takes into account age and the presence of other diseases. In hypertension, it is important not only to reduce the pressure, but also to prevent its increase in the future. Stabilize over a long period. Try to avoid hypertensive crises.
Medications to normalize blood pressure are divided by type, method of action and effectiveness. Often used complex treatment with the use of drugs from different groups.
Tablets for reducing pressure are divided into several groups, depending on their hypotensive mechanism of action, these are:
- Beta-blockers. Inhibit the activity of receptors of the heart. Reduce heart rate and their strength. Contraindicated in patients with COPD. Currently using selective beta-blockers, which are the new generation of drugs. The drugs of this group include Coriol, Metoprolol, Bisoprolol, Egilok, Tenoric.
- Calcium antagonists. Blocks the channels that provide calcium in the smooth muscle fibers, relax them. Reduce the strength and frequency of heart contractions. These are Corinfar, Verapamil, Izoptin, Zinnarizin, Stamlo.
- Myotropic antispasmodics. Do not allow calcium to enter the cell. They are used at the early stage of treatment of hypertensive disease and to relax the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract ("No-shpa", "Spazmalgon", "Dibazol", "Papaverine", "Duspatalin").
- Nitrates Are strong venodilatator. Reduce vascular tone, increasing the lumen in them. Lower blood flow to the heart. They are able to greatly reduce pressure, and develop a number of adverse reactions (Cardicet, Isocket, Perlinganite, Erinite, Nitrong).
- Alpha-blockers. They belong to strong antihypertensive drugs. Inhibit the activity of alpha-adrenoreceptors in arterioles, reducing the spasm of the latter ("Ebrantil", "Arfonad", "Benzogeksony", "Phentolamin").
- Sympatholitics. They neutralize the influence of the sympathetic nervous system, while destroying noradrenaline, which is responsible for the impulses that travel along the nerve fibers ("Rauvazan", "Isobarin", "Reserpine").
- Diuretics.Excess water is eliminated from the body, along with sodium ions ("Furosemide", "Trifas", "Hypothiazids", "Lasix", "Aldacton").
- Alpha stimulants. Activate alpha-adrenoreceptors located in the brain. Reduce the activity of the remote sympathetic nervous system. Cause side effects in the form of drowsiness, weakness, and others ("Clofelin", "Clonidine", "Methyldof").
- ACE inhibitors. They inhibit angiotensin-converting enzymes, preventing the occurrence of angiotensin-2 (Enalapril, Lysinopril, Tritace, Captopress, Renitec).
- Sartans. They block the occurrence of angiotensin receptors in blood vessels. Lower both upper and lower pressure. Virtually no effect on the heart ("Cardosal", "Lozal", "Mikardis", "Tevet").
In the treatment of hypertension, complex therapy is used, where different types of drugs are used simultaneously.
Decreased systolic pressure
Tablets to reduce the upper pressure have a characteristic antihypertensive effect. Not only lower the pressure, but also significantly reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Tablets to lower upper blood pressure act as calcium channel blockers. These are usually the following drugs:
In the treatment of hypertension, diuretics are added to them in a small amount, such as Indapamide and Hydrochlorothiazide.
Calcium channel blockers used in combination therapy with diuretics are among the main drugs used to lower blood pressure in elderly patients. These drugs also have a pronounced anti-atherosclerotic property.
Tablets for lowering diastolic pressure
Patients should use tablets for lowering blood pressure only as directed by a physician. Usually, if the lower pressure is elevated for a long time, then the patient is placed in a hospital where the necessary therapy is selected.
Usually, beta-blockers ("Anaprilin") are used to lower the pressure, in addition to them, ACE inhibitors ("Captopril") are prescribed. Angiotensin receptor and calcium channel blockers are also used. In addition to the above funds, diuretics can be prescribed.
Prolonged and well-chosen treatment of diastolic hypertension relieves tension from the blood vessels and prevents negative consequences.
Quick acting drugs
Tablets for the rapid reduction of blood pressure are widely used to treat hypertension. The most common are:
They put many pills to reduce pressure under the tongue, for sucking. For example, Adelfan or Kartopril. Sublingual administration of the drug helps to reduce pressure within 10-30 minutes. Such a result is short, because of this, some medicines have to be taken up to three times a day.
Tablets for rapid pressure reduction are sometimes used together with diuretics, such as "Furosemide". They remove excess fluid from the body, relax the muscles of the blood vessels and reduce the amount of circulating blood.
Pills for lowering blood pressure with a long-lasting effect is convenient to take (1-2 times a day).They are drunk constantly over a long period, up to 3-6 weeks. These drugs include:
Here are some pills for reducing pressure characterized by a long lasting effect. These medicines are used for hypertension grade 2–3, when long-term treatment is required. Tablets have a cumulative effect and are not designed to quickly reduce pressure.
Reducing high pressure (pills in this case should only be prescribed by a doctor and self-treatment should be completely eliminated here) can be carried out with combined drugs. With hypertension, they give the maximum result. An example of such medicines is Noliprel, where the action of two active substances is combined: perindopril arginine and indopamide. These drugs include Aritel Plus, active ingredients hydrochlorothiazide and bisoprolol, as well as Exforge tablets, which contain amlodipine and valsartan.
Similarly, the effect on the body drugs:
- "Lorista N" (hydrochlorothiazide, losartan);
- "Renipril GT" (hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril maleate).
- "Lozap plus" (hydrochlorothiazide, losartan);
- "Enap-N" (enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide);
- "Tonorma" (hydrochlorothiazide, triamteren).
Since one tablet contains several active ingredients, such drugs act on several factors that cause an increase in pressure. In some preparations, the active ingredients neutralize negative phenomena mutually.
As a rule, combined medications are taken once a day, regardless of the meal. This makes treatment not only convenient, but also relatively cheap.
Combined treatment gives the best results with high blood pressure. Here use several tools from different pharmacological groups.
In the treatment of hypertension, a combination of diuretic with a beta blocker, for example, Atenolol and Chlorthalidonol, as well as Hydrochlorothiazide with Bisoprolol, is common. Diuretics are often combined with ACE inhibitors, this is “Hydrochlorothiazide” plus “Captopril” or “Indopamid” plus tablets “Perindopril”. For the treatment of hypertension, a combination diuretic andSartana: "Hydrochlorothiazide" at the same time as "Losartan" or "Hydrochlorothiazide" in combination with the Valsartan pills.
In the therapeutic treatment of patients, a combination of a calcium channel blocker and a β-blocker is used (Felodipine and Metoprolol pills). Even in the treatment of hypertension, calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors are combined (Amlodipine tablets plus Benazepril or Diltiazem in combination with Enalapril).
Effective pills for reducing pressure
Drugs aimed at the treatment of hypertension, many, the most effective of them are:
"Losartan". The medicine belongs to the Sartan group. Warns vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II on the body, which is formed due to the transformation of renin produced by the kidneys. The drug inhibits the receptor subtype AT1. Both the upper and lower pressure begins to decrease after the first dose of the drug. When the tablet is first used, the effect lasts 6 hours, with prolonged treatment - a day. To stabilize the pressure, the medicine is drunk regularly for 3 to 6 weeks. The drug gives a stable result and is well tolerated by patients.
"Lisinopril".It is an ACE inhibitor. Antihypertensive effect appears an hour after taking the drug. Helps keep pressure normal. Increases myocardial tolerance to excessive loads. In patients with severe hypertension, an increase in myocardium and the volume of left ventricular chambers prevent. Suitable for people with heart failure and those who have suffered a heart attack.
"Renipril GT". Treats the combined medicines. Contains hydrochlorothiazide and enalapril maleate. The drug reduces the pressure gradually, while not removing potassium from the body. It is characterized by high efficiency. Perfectly tolerated by patients. The maximum concentration in the blood is observed two hours after administration.
"Captopril". Belongs to ACE inhibitors. Tablets to reduce pressure prevent hypertensive crisis, act quickly. Can be combined with other medicines. They are not recommended to be used constantly, as they can drastically reduce pressure, which will cause loss of consciousness. The drug improves blood supply to the heart muscle during ischemia, lowers platelet aggregation. Reduces myocardial hypertrophy.It is used up to 4 times a day. It has contraindications, and may cause adverse reactions.
"Arifon-retard". It belongs to the sulfonamide derivative group. Combines the actions of the diuretic and antihypertensive drug. It is used in small doses. It has no pronounced diuretic effect. During the day leads to normal pressure. It is used once a day. Considered one of the safest drugs. It has a minimal amount of negative effects and an affordable price.
"Veroshpiron". Diuretic that does not wash out potassium. Used in combination therapy and rarely causes adverse reactions. Drink pills up to four times a day. With long-term use of the drug can cause hormonal disruptions in the body.
Amlodipine. It is a calcium channel blocker. It has anti-ischemic and antihypertensive properties. Reduces vascular tone and gently reduces blood pressure. The maximum effect is observed after 8 hours. May cause a number of side effects.
"Klofelin". Belongs to the central alpha stimulants. Quickly reduces blood pressure, simultaneously removing the feeling of anxiety, panic and fear.Anesthetizing. It is prescribed for hypertensive crisis. When used, blood pressure should be regularly monitored.
"Enalapril." Applies to ACE inhibitors. The duration of the drug is a day. The therapeutic effect is observed after a week of regular use. These are good pills for reducing pressure. They inhibit the occurrence of angiotensin 2 and its vasoconstrictor effect. Lower systolic and diastolic pressure. Reduce the load on the myocardium. Suitable for patients with heart failure.
Which pills to choose for lowering blood pressure should be decided only by a doctor, relying on the full picture of the disease.
Prevention of hypertension
Above it was written about what are the pills for reducing pressure. Which doctor is better to take, and now a little about how to prevent the occurrence of hypertension.
The main reasons for the increase in pressure are:
- unhealthy diet;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- the presence of bad habits (alcohol, smoking);
In order to avoid hypertension, you should give up bad habits,adjust nutrition (the main share in the menu should be taken by fresh vegetables and fruits), limit salt in the diet to 1.5 g per day, get enough sleep and devote time to exercise every day. It is necessary to minimize the use of tonic drinks, and, if possible, completely abandon them. Periodically, to maintain health, take vitamin complexes with potassium, magnesium and vitamin C. Try to avoid stress.
Of course, it is important to choose a good drug to reduce pressure, but it is better to prevent hypertension and ensure that it does not occur.