Tasteful propaganda

29-07-2017, 09:25
Confectioners served the Russian authorities at all times. And the question, of course, is not only about the supply of all kinds of delicacies, first to the king, later to the party and presidential courts. Confectionery packaging of all types and forms almost from the very moment of its appearance has turned into a popular and accessible platform for mass advertising - including social and political.
Tasteful propaganda
By the way, the mankind became rather late to wrap sweets and chocolates in wrappers or to pack them in tin and glass jars - in the middle of the XIX century. Foil was first used as packaging material in France and England. The invention of the candy wrapper is attributed to Thomas Edison - the very one that patented the light bulb and a lot of other useful things. A patent for a wrapper, of course, never existed, but it was Edison who in 1872 created waxed paper, which confectioners began to use a little later to pack their sweet products. This was done for reasons of hygiene, aesthetics, ease of transportation and storage of sweets.However, it immediately became clear that the bright wrapper with a catchy name attracted the buyer much more than plain paper. And if you give this name a special actual meaning and add to it a certain memorable picture? The advertising and agitation power of the confectionery packaging with the infinite love of Russians for sweets was simply incredible. And each small agitation fell right on target - into the hands of the buyer, who unwrapped the delicacy. This was well understood by industrialists of pre-revolutionary Russia.
Shop for wrapping caramel factory "S.Siu and K"
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Confectioners of the late XIX - early XX centuries approached the design of candy packaging very seriously. For example, co-owner of the Moscow Association of the Einem steam factory, Julius Geis himself was an artistic photographer and personally engaged in the design of products. It was from his presentation that the branded confectionery packaging became a real work of art - in some cases, it was even trimmed with velvet, silk, leather, moire paper. The famous manufacturer Alexey Abrikosov invited professional painters to his packing shop - the artel of 30 people was headed by the then-famous artist Fedor Shemyakin.It is known that many famous painters had a hand in the design of pre-revolutionary candy wrappers - including Ivan Bilibin, Ivan Ropet, Konstantin Somov, Victor and Appolinariy Vasnetsov, Sergey Yaguzhinsky, Boris Zvorykin, Evgeny Lancere. And all the somewhat significant events in the social and political life of the country, the artists immediately reflected in candy wrappers, coffee cans, cookie boxes, etc. So we have to admit that the politicization present in some candy wrappers, so characteristic of the Soviet period, came to us not with the advent of the Bolsheviks, but much earlier.
Workers in the pre-revolutionary candy shop
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Portraits of the ruling persons and symbols of imperial power were present on the domestic candy wrappers in the middle of the XIX century. Many confectionery enterprises tried to please the sovereign. So, the partnership “A.I. Apricots and Sons "in huge volumes produced caramel" Tsar "with a bright yellow wrap, which was depicted a monument to Emperor Alexander II. Not less pompous packaging for “Tsar” caramel - with a coat of arms, monograms, scepter, crown and other imperial attributes - was made by the craftsmen of the “S. Sioux and K ”and Kharkov merchant Dmitry Kromsky.
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By the way, almost all domestic factories produced sweets, cookies and other sweets called “Tsarskie” at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries - good, at that time nobody presented the copyright to the popular brand. So, the confectionery company Georges Borman made Tsarskaya caramel with the coat of arms of the Russian Empire on a rather unpretentious wrapper. Inexpensive candies of the same name were produced by both the St. Petersburg confectioner Georg Landrin and the M.I. Vasiliev, and many other Russian manufacturers. The partnership of Maurice Conradi produced “Royal” chocolate - its packaging was also very primitive, which is rather unusual for pre-revolutionary design. The wrapper for “Royal” sweets does not differ from the special association “Einem”. The reason is simple: although the product was called "Tsar", it was intended for the masses, i.e. It was relatively affordable in terms of - from here, in fact, uncomplicated cheap packaging. But the ordinary person is more important what is inside. So His Majesty quite economically became closer to the people.
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The partnership of the steam factory "Einem" looked into the depths of centuries.The collections contain chic in design and quality, imbued with patriotism, packaging from coffee and cocoa with colorful illustrations of the most iconic events in Russian history - for example, the invitation of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov to enter the realm. Persuasion, as is known, had an effect.
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A patriotic message blows from the wrapper to the Vologda pre-revolutionary caramel "Russia", which depicts the Russian knight in armor, an imperial eagle on the shield and a tricolor in his hand. Under the armor, obviously, a woman is hiding - Mother Russia itself. Strong, courageous, but wise and fair. Pay attention to how good her face turned out! True, the decoration of this wrapper is far from perfect - the finishing in color, to put it mildly, is lame. We also note that in Soviet times the word “Russia” will disappear from the packaging of products.
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In the same period, several factories produced candy, whose name today would have caused quite a few hot disputes - the Malorossiyskaya caramel, on the packaging of which a girl with a tambourine in Ukrainian national costume is drawn. In addition, a series of mini-chocolate "Russian peoples",where representatives of Little Russia were also represented. Caramel with the same name, by the way, was also produced in the USSR. So until recently, such a name was considered not only correct, but also quite patriotic.
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Significantly added credibility to the imperial court delicacies, on the packages of which were placed the views of different Russian cities - first of all, Moscow. In addition to monuments and exquisite architectural buildings, the wrappers depicted the royal palaces, various government agencies, temples. There are many similar wrappers in private collections and museums, it is almost impossible to mention all the series. Let us cite as an example the most colorful of them.
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In 1903, sweets appeared on the Russian market, on the wrappers of which there were already views of St. Petersburg - this year the Northern Capital celebrated its 200th anniversary. However, such packages have been preserved a bit - in any case, they are almost not represented in the collections. It is known, for example, that the trading house “G. and E. Lenov "released to this date lollipops in a tin box called" Tsar Peter I "with a portrait of the emperor on the lid.
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It must be said that the tradition of celebrating historical events with the release of new varieties of confectionery originates in Russia from the time of the reign of Emperor Alexander II. It was then, after the abolition of serfdom, that the first Russian “historical” packaging was made - in 1861, candy from the A.A. factory appeared in the shops. Savinova under the names “Reform”, “Will”, “Liberation of the Peasants”, “Cancellation of Serfdom”. In fairness, we note that the liberated peasants could hardly afford these delicacies. The candy wrappers themselves turned out to be very rich in content - mostly with the image of crowds of people who thank the sovereign for the fateful decision made. Unfortunately, there are almost no such wrapping artifacts to date, and those that are present are in a deplorable state.
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Do not miss the Russian manufacturers and the establishment of relations between Moscow and Paris. In 1896, Emperor Nicholas II and his wife visited France. This visit was the result and expression of the long-awaited rapprochement between France and Russia. The active supporter of this political dialogue was, among other things, the President of the French Republic Felix Faure - he made a return visit to Russia in 1897.As a result - a portrait of a ruler on our candy wrapper. Whatever you may say, Russian confectioners instantly reacted to the political situation. In the homeland of these honors Felix Fora probably did not provide.
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In 1910, the whole Empire widely celebrated another significant date - the 100th anniversary of the birth of the most popular writer Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol at that time. This event is also reflected in the candy series. Moreover, confectioners produced not only Gogol caramel with a portrait of a classic, but also delicacies with the image of heroes from Gogol's works and small quotes from them. Today, it is unlikely that anyone will answer whose filling was tastier - Sobakevich, Bobchinsky or Taras Bulba.
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It is noteworthy that the “revolutionary petrel” and the main proletarian writer Maxim Gorky was “recited” in caramel by the royal confectioners. Steam plant I.L. Dinga released candy with a portrait of a young writer long before 1917 - as is well known, Alexey Peshkov became famous for his first romantic works even before the arrival of Soviet power. By the way, the latter did not render him any nominal candy honors, although numerous options of “petrels” left the Soviet confectionery conveyors regularly.Lev Tolstoy was also pleased with the pre-revolutionary literary series - the artists of the Filippov factory depicted the Russian classic barefoot, in full growth, against the background of a family estate. Famous Russian opera singer Leonid Sobinov and artist Viktor Vasnetsov also received the honor of getting on the imperial candy wrapper. The world fame of these Russian talents, of course, added prestige to the Russian Empire itself, so these candy wrappers with a clear conscience can be attributed to propaganda - say, know ours!
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In 1913, the Russian Empire celebrated the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov on a large scale. Confectioners did not remain in debt, and they came to this date with true patriotism. For the anniversary celebrations were prepared in advance: ordered a special festive packaging, developed new types of sweet products. For the common people - caramel and toffee, for more wealthy clients - butter biscuits, chocolate, sweets with exquisite taste. So, the Kharkov partnership of Dmitry Kromsky in 1913 released a series of candies “In memory of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov”, which included the caramel “Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich”, “Moscow Kremlin”, “Kozma Minin” and others.
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By the same date, the Einem Association launched a line of elite confectionery products, multi-page jubilee leaflets with the image of royal persons and a brief reference story about them were put into exquisite tin and cardboard boxes. In this case, the packaging performed not only an agitational, but also an educational function, which, however, was not a great rarity. Leading Russian confectioners have always considered it their civic duty to combine a commercial approach to business with charitable and educational activities. According to pre-revolutionary candy wrappers, it was possible to study not only the entire royal dynasty and nationalities of the empire, but also types of sea reptiles, birds, types of weapons and hunting, and even study the alphabet.
The building of the factory "A.Siu and K" in Moscow
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Strangely enough, but in the anniversary confectionery series, apparently, there was not a single wrapper with the image of the Russian empresses. In any case, we were not able to find any such candy wrappers (by the way, modern such instances come across often). It is difficult to find an explanation for this - in Russia, Catherine II and Elizabeth Petrovna have always honored and recognized the merits.However, for some reason there was no place for them on the pastry packages.
In the same year, in 1913, in honor of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov, the “A.Siu and Co” factory produced the “Jubilee” cookie for the first time. This brand has safely survived to our days, and the majority of the sweet teeth mistakenly associate its appearance with the Soviet period - with the anniversaries of the revolution, the birthday of Lenin or other leaders. However, this name was born precisely in the year of the 300th anniversary of the Russian monarchy. Confectioner manufacturer Adolph Siu came up with a recipe containing wheat flour, cornstarch, powdered sugar, margarine, milk and eggs. The “jubilee biscuit”, presented to the ruling dynasty, was rumored to have liked the emperor so much that the factory “Sioux and Co.” received the title of supplier of His Imperial Majesty's Court. After some 4 years, the Bolsheviks expropriated the name "Jubilee", and the factory, and the recipe for the famous cookies.
Box from montage for the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov
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The producers of the chain did not ignore such a significant anniversary date either. In some Russian museums, tin boxes are carefully kept, the covers of which adorn the portraits of the first and last Russian sovereigns from the Romanov dynasty. These are the rarest and most valuable exhibits. Prophetic turned their decoration.However, in 1913 no one could have imagined that Nicholas II would indeed become the last Russian emperor, and the empire itself would remain only a few years.
"White General" - from candy wrappers to the demolition of the monument
Tasteful propaganda
In the meantime, unsuspecting Russian confectioners with their sweet products pay tribute to the military successes of the Russian Empire. At that time, the kids were savoring the Bismarck, Nelson, Susanin caramel. With a good appetite, the sweet tooth was consumed by the “White General” chocolates from the “Siu and K” factory, made in honor of the victor of the Russian-Turkish war and the liberator of Bulgaria, Mikhail Skobelev. These candies were released in memory of the Khiva campaign during the development of the Central Asian expanses by the Russian Empire. Such a sonorous nickname - "White General" - the commander received, including due to the fact that even in battle often acted in a snow-white uniform and a white horse. Unfortunately, in Soviet times, this legendary commander will be undeservedly forgotten, having previously destroyed all the monuments erected in his honor. In Moscow, such a monument was destroyed on May 1, 1918 on the personal instructions of Vladimir Lenin - in accordance with the decree on the removal of monuments erected in honor of the kings and their servants.A concrete figure of “Revolutionary Freedom” was installed on the site of the destroyed sculpture, which was later replaced by Yury Dolgoruky.
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The “national” series of candies with the image of the armored cruiser “Askold”, which glorified Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. The Soviet government, of course, “Askold” suddenly took off the caramel conveyor belt, and in return gave the proletariat freed from the royal shackles a candy with the image of the correct ship, the battleship Potemkin. And how many chocolate and caramel "Avror" reached the Soviet and Russian consumers, counting, perhaps, is impossible.
Tasteful propaganda
The year 1912 was also a fertile informational occasion for our pastry chefs and packers, when the Empire magnificently celebrated the 100th anniversary of the victory over Napoleon. The Russians certainly with undisguised pleasure swallowed the fallen Bonaparte, even if it was caramel.
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Candy Corsican from the company of Georg Landrin, which specialized in the production of montage, also looked quite appetizing. Today such artifacts are an exceptional rarity.
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A series of top-quality expensive dessert chocolate from the Einem Association under the common name "1812" is also widely known.It included a dozen different colorful wrappers — among them, “Fighting the Rayevsky battery”, “Borodino”, “The entry of the French avant-garde into the Kremlin”, etc. Each such package was accompanied by a small reference material on the stated topic. Sweet tooths, which gathered all twelve wrappers, got a pretty good idea of ​​the main points of the Patriotic War of 1812.
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In 1912 several factories were thoroughly noted by the release of various products under the common name “Russian army” with pictures of all the tsarist army officials - from the lower to the officer. The victorious warriors on the bright wrapper were all depicted as brave, stately, merry barbs — ulans, dragoons, adjutants, cavalier guard — who are not afraid of any enemy. Lovers of sweets had to burst legitimate and genuine pride from one type of reliable defenders of the Fatherland. And the people were really proud!
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However, two years later, not only the mood in the country and the tonality of candy wrappers will change, but even the quality of these wrappers. Exquisite multi-color drawings on the wrappers of 1910–13 during the First World War suddenly became nondescript and mostly monochrome. Financial difficulties forced manufacturers to save on good packaging.At the very beginning of the Imperialist campaign, the Moscow factory Progress produced the Ultimatum caramel. Unlike multi-colored, sometimes frivolous pre-war ones, its wrapper was sustained in gloomy gray-black tones. The caramel with the boring name “Gray Hero” from the Petrograd candy and chocolate factory looks rather gloomy. Her indifferent candy wrapper depicts a Russian soldier in the form of an infantryman. In this case, for some reason, in the center of the shooting target. The feeling is that the chances of winning and returning home are few.
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A series of caramel "Heroes" was produced at that time with a portrait of the most famous hero of the First World War, the St. George Knight, Kozma Kryuchkov. July 30, 1914 in a battle near the town of Kotsari in Poland, he killed 11 Germans, while receiving 16 wounds with a spear. During the war years, the image of this dashing Cossack was so often exploited by propaganda that many doubted the reality of his feat. However, the character itself was quite real. It is known that noble metropolitan ladies came to the front to get acquainted with the legendary hero. During the Civil War, Kuzma Kryuchkov remained loyal to the oath - he fought against the Bolsheviks, he died heroically in 1919 in a battle under the village of Lopukhovka of the Saratov province.
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The producers of sweets did not forget about the Russian allies in the First World War, as evidenced by the Soyuznaya caramel from the Sioux and K factory with the national flags of Belgium, France, Serbia, and Great Britain on the wrapper. Separately produced caramel "Balkan" with a portrait of the Serbian King Peter I, who personally commanded his troops in the First World War. To the same subject can be attributed the wrapper from the candy with the image of a nurse of mercy, which provided medical assistance to our soldiers during the military campaign. Each of these wrappers, of course, endowed with a campaign function.
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In 1915-1916, the manufacturer Georges Borman produced a series of chocolate "Military Life". On each tile he placed a small black and white photo with a military episode - for example, “Putting on a howitzer on the front”, “In a chain”, “On a halt”. It turned out, though not colorful, but very authentically - after all, these pictures. In other words, Russian confectioners very actively used military topics in the manufacture of packages for their products. Today it is difficult to say whether this was the answer to a special royal order.In any case, the production of such wrappers could not but be encouraged by His Majesty’s Court. It was believed that such packages increased morale and confidence in victory both at the front and in the rear.
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Now we propose to assess the situation of domestic confectionery production, in which it appeared shortly after the fateful events of October 1917. And the situation was very deplorable. After the revolution, the young Soviet Union was, to put it mildly, not up to the sweet life - it was necessary to survive, and sweets were not among the basic necessities. Not surprisingly, as a result of the change in the political system, instead of 145 large confectionery enterprises (those that employed more than 50 people were considered as such), numbered in the Russian Empire by 1917, there were no more than 10. Miraculously survived the coup after the nationalization, titles and numbered. For example, the famous Association of the steam factory “Einem” in the period of the so-called “military communism” became known as the “State Confectionery Factory No. 1”, the Abrikosov factory received No. 2, the Siu and K factory No. 3, etc.Unfortunately, in the collection of wrappers we did not manage to find a single exhibit labeled with numbered factory names - either the production of sweets was almost frozen at that time, or the candies were sold without packaging, and all the paper went for more important needs. But the fact remains that in the very earliest Soviet candy wrappers that we were able to find, it’s not at all numbered, but the new names of the confectioneries that were given after 1921 with the advent of NEP. The Bolsheviks began to restore the national economy with the assignment of new names to their enterprises - the Einem partnership turned into Red October, the Abrikosov factory was given the name of Peter Babayev, Sioux K was renamed Bolshevik. And along with the new names of state-owned enterprises on the packages, for several years they also indicated the names of the previous owners of the factories (for example, “formerly“ Einem ”) - people had so great trust in the old manufacturers. All these former royal confectionery giants with the arrival of the NEP united under the auspices of Mosselprom.
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Mosselprom - Moscow Province Association of Enterprisesthe processing of agricultural products is the food trust of the Moscow Council of National Economy, which united the capital nationalized enterprises. The trust was created in 1922 and existed until 1937. It includes not only confectionery, but also tobacco, baking, sausage, brewing, flour milling, pasta, yeast, wineries, canneries. Mosselprom also owned several auxiliary industries (a cardboard-box factory, an art workshop, a printing house, etc.) and its own extensive wholesale and retail distribution network, which included wholesalers, retail stores, stalls and trays.
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Among the candy wrappers of that time, you are unlikely to find at least one chocolate: the rise of the sweet production of the Soviet government began with the release of the most simple and cheap candy - caramel and dragee. These workshops were launched first. The proletariat, in the literal sense of the word, did not eat anything “sweeter than a carrot,” even these simple sweets seemed like a delicious delicacy. Some sources claim that the production technology and recipes of the royal chocolate brand in a post-revolutionary confusion were lost.
It is impossible not to notice that the level of printing of candy wrappers of the beginning of the 20s significantly decreased compared with the years 1913-1914. Economic difficulties have even affected the quality of the paper: sweets are now wrapped in a coarse grayish wrapper. Many qualified printers either left the country, were either dismissed, or could not fully work on worn-out equipment, which the post-revolutionary 5-7 years had not been serviced at all. In addition, supplies of consumables were lost - there was nowhere to wait for the supply of quality paints. Not surprisingly, after 1917, monochrome dull wrappers were widely spread. The ideological background for this fading and facelessness was found quickly - colorful and elegant candy wrappers were recognized as an unnecessary luxury that reminded of the beautiful life of the bourgeoisie.
Dramatic changes occurred in the names of sweet products. The Soviet government has eliminated from the wraps all the signs of the old time, all the symbols associated with imperial Russia. The brands Tsarskaya, Princess and Boyaryna have disappeared. Instead, the new leadership of the country gave the people dozens of other names corresponding to the revolutionary era.It was at the beginning of the 1920s that the propaganda function of pastry wrappers was manifested most clearly - candy propaganda became massive, energetic, sometimes aggressive, and at times ridiculous. But in any case, the caramel agitation was clearer and more pleasant to the common people. The politicization of candy wrappers was manifested, above all, in the appearance of portraits of new heroes - Soviet ones. The leaders of the revolution, the leaders of the world proletariat, the popular rebels entered into the daily life of the “liberated workers and peasants class” not only from the editorials of Pravda, but also from caramel wraps.
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The Bolshevik Confectionery Factory, for example, produced Ilyich caramel with a primitive painted portrait of the “leader of the world proletariat” on a red background, framed with a green wreath and topped with a scarlet star, which for some reason emanated a green glow. It is impossible not to appreciate the subtle psychological course of those who came up with this candy wrapper - from the first years of life the leader was associated with sweet children, they simply adored Lenin's grandfather. Pay attention: on this wrapper, next to the newly acquired name of the nationalized factory, the former confectionery association “Siu and K” also appears.As it turned out, the Bolsheviks shamelessly nationalized the Frenchman Adolphe Sioux and his sons not only the factory itself, but even the design of its candy wrappers! Look at the wrapper from the pre-revolutionary caramel from the “Alphabet” series with the letter “K” - its design is almost identical to the packaging for “Ilyich”, except that the flirty top bow was replaced with a five-pointed star. It is even strange that the Bolsheviks did not bother to wrap the caramel leader in some kind of original candy wrapper.
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It was not the only Soviet delicacy depicting the "father of the world revolution." It is known about another caramel "Ilyich" with a portrait of the leader and about the cookies of the same name. In addition, the factory "Red October" produced large packages of caramel of the "Proletarskaya" series with the image of Lenin. Most likely, these candies were in the form of dragees and did not have an individual wrapper (at least, they are not found in collections). Most connoisseurs date uncomplicated Leninist sweets to the mid-20s, suggesting that they left the assembly line after the leader's death. We will not argue - most likely it was.
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By the way, "Red October" produced a whole series of Proletarskaya caramel.How many revolutionary leaders have entered into it is not known for sure, but among collectors there are at least two wrappers — with a portrait of Commissar for Foreign Trade Leonid Krasin (the same Krasin, who, according to one version, shot Savva Morozov, and also initiated the preservation of the deceased Lenin and the construction of the mausoleum on Red Square), and the depiction of the People's Commissar of Education, Anatoly Lunacharsky. By the way, both of them will die before the start of the big terror that Stalin unleashed at the end of the 30s. We also note that the wrappers of this series, like many others, were printed in the Moscow printing house of the hereditary printer B. Barnett (who came from Great Britain, who came to Russia in the first half of the XIX century), i.e. by this time the Bolsheviks had not yet had time to rename the nationalized enterprise, which may indicate that these candies were released at the very beginning of the 20s. Note that the "Proletarian" caramel was packaged in wrappers, decorated in the heavy style of the Soviet propaganda poster. The abundance of red is also a sign of a new era.
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The same "Red October" at that time produced a series of caramel "Jubilee", the release of which was timed to the 5th anniversary of the October Revolution.About this event eloquently testified two dates, placed on each wrapper - "1917-1922". This time, Jacob Sverdlov, who died in 1919 and was greatly appreciated by Lenin, also fell on the candy wrappers, as well as German Karl Marx, the author of the first communist manifesto, and his compatriot, leader of the Communist Party of Germany, brutally murdered by supporters of the Friedrich Ebert government in 1919. Despite the abundance of Bolshevik symbolism - wheat ears, sickle with a hammer, torches, laurel wreaths, five-pointed stars - this work of the artists of “Red October” was sustained in the traditional pre-war style. All these playful curls in fonts will soon give way to chopped letters. In some sources, there is evidence that this portrait also included a portrait of Leon Trotsky, but we did not manage to find such a wrapper. Perhaps our readers have such a rarity and will demonstrate it through the site "Little Stories"?
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In the 1920s, the state confectionery factory Marata produced at least two portrait caramels in one design decision - All-Union Head Kalinin and Dzerzhinsky.“Iron Felix” hardly found the name candies, but Mikhail Ivanovich probably tried his taste of himself more than once. And not only could he have a frosty winter evening drink tea with an "all-union elder" while he was on the hook. In the design of both wrappers, lightness and refinement are still present - even the sickle around Kalinin looks elegant, completely unmilitary.
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The Soviet authorities took a place on candy candy wrappers and a place for a long time late fighters with royal power. Among collectors, in particular, the caramel series “Decembrists”, produced by the factory it. Babaeva. One of the wrappers depicts a portrait of Pavel Pestel, executed by hanging in July 1926. The Babaev’s series of the Eighties is often found depicting Nikolai Kibalchich, no less revered by the Soviet authorities, who was hanged on April 3, 1881 for organizing the assassination attempt on Alexander II, as a result of which the reforming emperor was mortally wounded. However, the streets and other objects, named after Kibalchich, Perovskaya, Zhelyabov and other terrorists who organized and implemented the murder of Alexander II, still exist in every second Russian city.
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Revolutionary symbols on packages and labels in clear images spoke to the consumer about the aspirations that would permeate the class that had taken power into their own hands. Very many names of Soviet sweets of the 20s began with the word “red”. This is quite understandable: red in the understanding of the Bolsheviks is the color of the blood shed by the working people in the struggle for their freedom. So, the caramel “Red Poppy”, “Red Aviator” and even “Red Disabled” (people with disabilities were called war veterans who were injured during the war) could be found on the stores of that time. Or caramel "Red Moscow". The plot on its wrapper for that time is rather banal - the worker stands on the ruins of the old world, in his hands he has a gun with a red flag on a bayonet, and behind him a new world opens - a smoking factory, multi-storey houses. In the avant-garde style of that era, they very much liked to depict industrial smoke and pipes, which then served as a marker of Force and Progress. It is impossible not to notice the big red six-pointed (!) Star, against the background of which a revolutionary worker flaunts. On the “Red Dawn” candy wrapper, by the way, stylistically very similar to “Red Moscow”, we see proletarians and peasants against the backdrop of industrial and agrarian landscapes, in the foreground is also the standard-bearer with the RSFSR flag.Both candies are expectedly released by the Red October factory. Notice that the edges of the patterns of the wrappers are completely the same - apparently, they were produced with one tape.
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By the way, the star of David on the red banner is also present on the wrapper from the "Internationale" candy factory them. Babaeva. There was no surprise in the USSR with a caramel with a similar name: this international revolutionary proletarian organization united the Communist Parties of dozens of countries and dreamed of a world revolution — like any respectable Soviet citizen. However, we in this wrapper attracted a completely different nuance: the word “candy” was printed on the candy wrapper, and not “candy”. Precisely so - in the masculine gender and through the letter "K" - this word was used in our country until the mid-20s. However, the Soviet confectionery packaging with this word are rarely met - all because in the USSR, as we have already noted, it was the dominance of cheap caramel. The candies, obviously, were chocolate. It is likely that the "Internationale" really made chocolate - did not want to hit the dirt in front of foreign comrades.
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Again a star, but already five-pointed red,gives out the propaganda orientation of another candy wrapper - from the Bogatyr caramel. On the wrapper, the Russian knight in ancient armor strikes with a club of a fire-breathing dragon. All would be nothing, but only on the bogatyr's chest the symbol of a completely different era, far from Ancient Russia. In the dragon, the buyer obviously had to recognize the class enemy. Well, a subtle propaganda move from the designers of the Bolshevik factory.
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A pronounced propaganda trend is also traced in the Republican caramel series - on its wrappers made exclusively in red, about a dozen different subjects with standard-bearers, Red Army men, workers, peasants and other revolutionary people. This people is generously seasoned with images and symbols of the New Era: in addition to red banners and working-peasant tools, unusual architectural structures, telegraph wires, airplanes, and locomotives are used in the design. On each wrapper in this series we find the abbreviation "USSR". Apparently, sweets were issued in time for the formation of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics - therefore, in fact, they are called "Republican".
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Of course, Soviet artists and pastry chefs could not ignore the symbol of the united worker-peasant labor - crossed hammer and sickle. This emblem was adopted in Soviet Russia in the spring of 1918. For the first time her image appeared in print on July 26 of the same year - before that, the emblem “plow and hammer” was used. Together with the red star, the hammer and sickle appeared on the flag of the USSR in 1923, and a year later they were enshrined in the constitution. Until the mid-30s, these crossed symbols were considered the small coat of arms of the USSR. In general, these tools simply could not fail to appear on the wrappers of the Soviet caramel.
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A symbol of that time was the very expression “New Era”, which signified the onset of the Soviet era with its equality, freedom and fraternity. According to Lenin's doctrine, the New Era assumed the formation of a special mass psychology of a person free from the sense of property, accustomed to living in the interests of the state. To form this mass psychology (later it would be ironically called a herd), there should have been caramel wrappers, for example, from the Odessa factory to them. Rosa Luxemburg. New Era, according to the artists of this company, is personified by the famous sculpture of Vera Mukhina “Worker and Kolkhoz Woman”.
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In the young Soviet Union, at one time it was believed that candy wrappers were a kind of “historical struggle of the working class”. This, of course, is an exaggeration, but undoubtedly the packaging, and not only the confectionery shop, bore a certain imprint of the events and life of those years. According to the first Soviet candy wrappers, it is possible to trace what problems existed then in the USSR. The country is struggling hard with total illiteracy - in the confectionery shops there is the Alphabet caramel with the image of objects in alphabetical order. And not just objects, but precisely those that reflect the scientific and technical progress to which the USSR so strives: the letter “A” - Airplane, “M” - Metro, “T” - Tramway, “C” - Zeppelin. I wonder what city served as a backdrop for zeppelin from the factory to them. Babayev?
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Another pressing problem of those years was the improvement of the peasantry. The state agitated the rural population as much as possible to get at least a primary education. This process was very difficult, the peasants learned to read and write extremely reluctantly. The villages were sent the so-called izbachi, when the collective farms opened an educational program,lectures and concerts were organized enlightening sense. The fight against illiteracy has given rise to a rather caramel series “Narodnaya” by today's standards. On one of the wrappers called “The center of culture in the village” is depicted the peasant's House, which was inscribed with a sickle and hammer, to which all roads lead to the village. A group of mowers together marches into it. Pay attention, on the bench near the very "hearth of culture" sits the same i-bag with a newspaper in hand - you can see, literally, in everything. On the second wrapper - “Communication of the city with the village” - an airplane from the air scatters the main printed mouthpiece of the USSR over the village the newspaper “Pravda”. In the third candy wrapper, the “Union of Workers and Peasants”, we see the agrarians and the proletariat merged together in a strong workers 'and peasants' handshake.
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"People" caramel produced not only the "Red October". In the 1920s and 1930s, it was a very popular brand - almost like “Tsarskaya” before the revolution. A similar series was produced and the factory. Babaeva. Representatives of the people from its designers are completely mowers and reapers. In the Narodnaya series, the main mechanized assistant of the peasantry turned out to be a tractor.Tractors and combines massively came to the Soviet village only in the mid 30s and were perceived as a real miracle. In fact, they instilled in the peasants faith in a bright and comfortable future, in which everyone will make cars for a man.
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Quite in the spirit of the “People’s” campaign wrappers, the packages for the Moscow karamel “Krestyanskaya” and the Kharkov tsekirka “Selyanskaya” turned out to be heroes and the surroundings are all the same. In general, the Soviet authorities tried to show their deepest respect and appreciation to the villagers. Meanwhile, the village itself was mostly starving, so the peasants and peasants did not even think about sweets.
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However, not only the peasantry was handed out caramel overtures to the Soviet authorities, but also to its main stronghold, the proletariat. Moreover, equally to representatives of both sexes of the working class.
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We have already mentioned the Proletarskaya caramel popular at that time from Krasny Oktyabr. In parallel with it, in 1923, the plant produced the “Our Industry” caramel close in design terms, which also became a rather spectacular propaganda tool. Two unsurpassed masters (including propaganda masters) - the poet Vladimir Mayakovsky and the artist Alexander Rodchenko worked on its creation.Like no other, this creative alliance effectively coped with the task of introducing ideas about the new Soviet way of life into the consciousness of the population with the help of new artistic and expressive means. This is what one of the industrial wrappers called “Tractor” looks like. In the center of a bright candy wrapper, a fordson-Putilovets tractor, antediluvian by modern concepts, is drawn.
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Mayakovsky and Rodchenko skillfully formed the “taste of the masses” (the very mass psychology of the man of the New Era). “The harvest was removed by you in time - it helped the Motherland very much!” Said the patriotic couplet of Mayakovsky on the “Harvest” candy. But not all the works of Vladimir Vladimirovich were so harmless. An example of this is the Krasnoarmeiskaya Zvezda caramel series. Today, the pictures on these candy wrappers, which, incidentally, were considered patriotic, would probably have been marked by the age requirement due to their cruelty, albeit caricatured. What, for example, is the package, which depicts a Red Army man, raising Denikin on a bayonet. Or a bayonet piercing Kolchak, a leg kicking Wrangel. These drawings, which look quite harmoniously on the Soviet propaganda posters of the period of the Civil War, are rather strange to see on the packages of a children's treat.However, children in the young Soviet Union grew quickly. The accompanying poems of Mayakovsky, though not so bloodthirsty, but perfectly finished the campaign message.
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There was another topic that confectioners from the second half of the 1920s could not circumvent in the propaganda wrappers - this is the nascent pioneer. The Soviet government made a big bet on the younger generation, so it gave a lot of effort to organize well-trained children under its wing.
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Well, where are the pioneers - there are October. A pretty nice girl in October was portrayed by the Riga factory “June 17th” - before nationalization it was the confectioner's shop of the entrepreneur Wilhelm Kuze called “Staburadze” (by the way, after the collapse of the USSR, the Latvians returned the factory's historical name). The baby in the picture turned out to be smiling (she generally looks like angels who were painted on pre-revolutionary postcards).
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During the war years, many confectionery enterprises began to produce completely non-core products - for example, they produced ampoules for incendiary bottles, devices for lubricating gun barrels, flame arresters. Some workshops have switched to sewing mittens and padded jackets.Many factory workers, including graphic artists, were called to the front. The lack of paper and printing ink during the war period also affected the quality of candy wrappers - they again became dull, and the pre-war variety of colors disappeared. The production of sweet products has been greatly reduced, but it would be a mistake to talk about the complete stop of the caramel shops. Remember, the unlucky hero of Oleg Dahl in the film "Zhenya, Zhenechka and Katyusha" relatives send to the front in the package of candy "Strawberry with cream".
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After the war, many factories were marked by the release of a propaganda winning series of sweets. True, it was not too broad - single collections of such products are kept in collections and museums. The export version of the packaging with the image of the national flags of the countries participating in the anti-Hitler coalition was also produced. Most of the other wrappers attended the Order of Victory.
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Since the second half of the 40s, the domestic confectionery industry, like many others, has finally begun to thaw, which immediately affected the assortment and quality of packaging. Since that time, candy series with views of Soviet cities - the capital, above all, have become extremely popular.The monument to Minin and Pozharsky and the Bolshoi Theater, the time-tested and ideological symbols of Moscow, returned to the wrappers.
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And, of course, the Kremlin with its ruby ​​stars crowning the tops of the towers. In 1947, on the dessert chocolate “October” from the factory “Red October” (the word “dessert” for some reason is written with two “C” on the wrapper), dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the revolution, powerful towers of the Kremlin with famous the stars. But look closer - behind the Ivan the Great bell tower with a belfry, and its cupolas are crowned with crosses! It is strange that such a wrapper was approved by the editorial board and even allowed for sale. Have you missed or did some kind of post-war thaw come about, which the secretary general allowed himself in regard to the victorious fascism of the long-suffering Soviet people?
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Anyway, the Soviet packaging designers will not allow themselves such liberties anymore. On all subsequent wrappers overlooking Red Square, you will no longer see any crosses. The church of St. Basil the Blessed will not be overwritten, fortunately, they won't, but they will also find a place under the mausoleum in the foreground.
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More and more often, Soviet sweets and chocolate will be called not just “Moscow”, but “New Moscow”, meaning that the transition to a new era and a “bright future” is almost complete. That is why, probably, near the Kremlin towers they will stop drawing bell towers, and they will start to depict the Palace of Congresses, the Ostankino Tower and other signs of the modern era.
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Regularly counting each anniversary of October (not necessarily the anniversary) confectionery factories will not cease either in the 40s or in the 50s. But now, the artists farsightedly limit themselves to a more concise design of propaganda wrappers: a red background, the teeth of the Kremlin wall, stars, sickles and hammers - as many as you like, but nothing more.
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Of course, all this propaganda Soviet symbolism did not bypass the tin confectionery box. It should be noted that in the USSR the production volumes of such packaging were several times smaller than in the tsarist period - after the revolution, this packaging format was more often replaced by a simpler and cheaper cardboard box in production. In the collections of such exhibits are quite rare.
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Even less often there are propaganda wrappers, the release of which was timed to coincide with some specific industrial achievements of the Soviet Union. So, the Leningrad Confectionery Factory.Krupskaya in 1952 released the Standard chocolate in honor of the completion of construction and launch of the Volga-Don canal to them. Lenin. The wrapper shows the first gateway of this giant hydraulic structure.
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In the 60s, cosmonautics became the main theme of the national agitation packaging - here the USSR, indeed, was ahead of the rest, and there was something to be praised for. Belke and Strelka, the first Soviet satellites and, of course, the cosmonauts themselves, found a place on candy wrappers.
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The era of "stagnation" almost did not give the Soviet confectioners substantial reasons for the release of campaign wrappers - the country lived measuredly, with laziness, without any special shocks, large-scale brainwashing was no longer required. People have long ceased to catch the original patriotic meaning in the names of the caramel "May 1", "USSR", "Artek" or "Friendship" - red stars, flags of the Union republics, pioneer horns have long been beloved by sweet lovers.
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The exception was, perhaps, two important reasons. The first is the Olympics, first held in the USSR in 1980. Of course, the authorities gave the command to reflect this historical event, including on candy wrappers.The people gladly swept chocolate and caramel with the charming Olympic talisman, pictograms and five rings off the shelves of confectionery shops
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The second occasion is the XII World Festival of Youth and Students, held in Moscow in the summer of 1985. The festival guests were 26 thousand people from almost 160 countries of the world. The authorities had a difficult task - to demonstrate to the whole world the positive aspects of the life of Soviet society. Specially for the festival were issued postage stamps with symbols and a commemorative coin. With the emblem of the festival - a five-leaf stylized flower with a dove of peace in the center - more than 7,000 items of souvenirs were made. It is known that 80 countries of the world used this logo. The emblem brought the USSR a net profit of 450 million rubles (premiums for products with the festival symbols). So sweets with a dove of peace in the mid-80s were very common.
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In the twilight of the USSR, images of party and state leaders were no longer exchanged for cups and sweets - mainly their portraits were worn at demonstrations and placed in public places. Well, after the restructuring began unmanaged label orgy, when each breeder produced such packaging, which he considered necessary and appropriate.So vodka “Gorbachev”, “Bryntsalov”, “Zhirinovsky”, and later - “Putinka” appeared. In an era of democracy, the ideological framework was replaced by permissiveness. To the credit of the Russians, it should be emphasized that even in the most difficult and politicized periods of Russian history, the public consciousness continued to crave for common human values. The beauty of the world, children's joys, romantic feelings and images - these are the themes that always naturally and organically agreed with the world of sweets, with the holiday of taste.

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