Teenage and youthful age. Psychological features of adolescence
In his development, a person consistently passes through various. They are certain stages of life, each of which is expressed only by its inherent personality characteristics and psychological functions. A person gradually develops intelligence, develops logical memory, increases voluntary attention, and higher emotions arise. All this finds its reflection not only in the appearance of young people, but also in their behavior.
To study mental development at each age stage, there is a special section in psychology - age psychology. This discipline deals with a number of problems, including:
- the optimal choice of the period for the development of certain abilities;
- mitigation of current age crises;
- the teacher’s understanding of the style of communication that he must take into account for various age categories of his wards.
Features of the adolescent stage
The observations that were made by a number of psychologists, allowed us to make an overall picture of the different periods of personal development. Their study will help to understand all the features of adolescence and youth.
So, a ten-year-old child easily perceives the life around him. He is trusting and balanced in communication with peers and with his parents. Care about his own appearance is in his background. This is the beginning of adolescence, lasting up to 15 years of age.
However, after a year in the child's body begins the process of puberty. At the eleven-year-old the behavior changes. Against the background of his increased impulsiveness and frequent change of behavior, he quarrels with his peers. Teenagers start to relate differently to parents and teachers. A child develops a volitional sphere, the authoritarianism of adults is perceived by him with a clear negative. Especially painful teenagers perceive this style of education, which suppresses the initiative and activity.However, the extra freedom falls on him unbearable cargo.
If parents do not respect their children and show peremptory demands on them, then their children become locked in and become deceitful. This behavior of adults leads to the formation of a self-confident, passive and slaughtered person. This is usually a dependent, and at the same time aggressive personality with egoistic and asocial traits. With trusting relationships between the adolescent and the parents, the child develops self-esteem and self-esteem, increases emotional comfort. Such a child easily establishes good relationships with all people.
Upon reaching the age of twelve, the teenager’s impulsiveness is somewhat smoothed. He begins to look more positively at the world around him. During this period, the child more and more increases his autonomy in the family, but this also increases the influence on his peer behavior. A teenager who has reached the age of twelve begins to be interested in the opposite sex and take care of her appearance.During this period, a person develops an intensive development of thinking and logical memory. This determines such main features of this age as tolerance, humor and rationality.
A thirteen-year-old is often turned inward. This is the main feature of this age period. At the age of 13, consciousness and self-consciousness are rapidly developing. This is of interest primarily to his personality. That is why a teenager often closes, showing particular sensitivity to criticism. The child becomes selective for friendship and begins to be interested in psychology. This creates a critical attitude to the actions of parents. At this age, hormonal development continues. The restructuring of the body is greatly enhanced, while maintaining mood fluctuations.
At the age of 14, the process of puberty is completed. The teenager again transfers his attention to the world around him. He is sociable and energetic, expansive and confident. At the same time, his interest in people and their inner world is increasing. In this case, a teenager often compares himself with others. Especially rapidly at this age develop thinking operations.The child ascribes endless possibilities to them, having applied them, he is supposedly able to transform the surrounding reality. Gradually, the philosophical orientation of behavior passes, and the teenager changes his position as an abstract reformer, becoming an active member of society.
The main features of the age of fifteen are independence and maximalism. The child shows a thirst for liberation from any external control and seeks complete independence. All this is combined with the beginning of the stage of conscious self-education and the development of self-control. This is the period when the first serious life plans are being built. However, this age brings its own dangers. The child becomes vulnerable and easily perceives the harmful effects. Sometimes he ceases to trust others and gives an inadequate assessment of himself and others. As a result, his behavior often deviates from the norm. Without applying the created ideal to itself, the teenager demands conformity to him from others. It often seems to such a child that people treat him negatively and do not understand him.
Features of the youthful stage
Sixteen years of age is characterized by equilibrium, cheerfulness and an increase in inner independence. These traits replace the previous rebellion. Adolescence is a period when a young man is looking into the future and is balanced. However, this is the initial stage of the new stage. It manifests the psychology of adolescence and adolescence at the same time. A young man for a long time can not escape from the inherent earlier one-sidedness of assessments, categorical and intolerance. He often manifests maximalism (overestimation of the unreal ideal) when reality seems bleak. Such a vision of life creates pessimism, despair, and suppresses activity. That is why adolescence is characterized by the manifestation of social criticism and negativism. The young man considers public relations, as if from the side. At the same time, he forgets that he himself is the product of the society he criticizes.
A person, the stage of formation of which is an early adolescence, often fixes attention only on what does not fit the description of his ideal. The resulting abstract discontent does not allow a sober assessment of social problems in society.At that moment, when adults point out to a young man the unfoundedness of his dark understanding of life, he opposes their convictions. These problems of adolescence can go away only when solving a difficult situation. At the same time, the actions that were taken by the young man will be the prerequisite that will change the negative attitude towards the world.
Psychologists divide adolescence into separate stages of development. Years from 16 to 18 years belong to early adolescence, and from 18 to 25 years - to late. But the main feature of this whole period is a person’s awareness of his individuality, uniqueness and dissimilarity to others. This often leads to a feeling of loneliness and internal tension. This state is enhanced with the need for communication, while increasing its selectivity. The personality of adolescence opens its inner world and is experiencing the need for spiritual closeness with other people. That is why high school students create their own image of an ideal teacher, highlighting his ability to establish emotional contact with students.The level of knowledge of the teacher while they put in second place.
Adolescence is a period during which a person has a great need for a special form of psychotherapy, which allows him to get support and express all feelings that overwhelm the soul. At this age, friendship becomes the most important factor of self-affirmation. Often, long-term communication in adolescence over the phone is considered by adults as simply meaningless and meaningless. Parents and teachers, these conversations are literally outraged. However, the development of adolescence is impossible without such contacts. Conversations support self-assertion.
Psychologists believe that the age of friends / boys selected is able to indicate the need for communication. So, if friendships are built with peers, they indicate a desire for equality. Having older friends indicates that there is a need for guidance and care. The young man’s forced choice will be indicated by communication with representatives of the younger generation. The lack of contact with peers and older people will indicate the presencecertain difficulties, such as shyness, and the disparity between levels of opportunity and aspirations.
Adolescence and adolescence are not easy stages in the life of every person. And this is associated with the formation of personality. The young man is disturbed by the balance of the inner world, and this is especially pronounced when adolescence comes. In this period there is a need for self-determination. A young man faces the choice of profession. This forces him to abandon many other things in his life. Self-determination in adolescence is a crucial and very difficult stage, as it is associated with self-restraint. And this explains some of the psychological characteristics of adolescence. In such a period, a person develops internal tension.
In early youth, people have a desire to prove to everyone around them that they are ready for adult life and independent decisions. Parents and teachers should promptly and actively support such impulses. In a later period, to form independence and the courage of life becomes much more difficult.Psychologists say that a young person starts making independent decisions much faster if at the initial stage he does it with adults, sharing responsibility with them for his actions.
In recent years, this term is mentioned quite often. What does he mean? Acceleration is nothing more than the acceleration of biological maturation. First of all, it finds its expression in the fact that the average weight of children at the initial stage of their life is greater than that of the children of previous decades. The acceleration of babies is evidenced by earlier periods of weight doubling and teething. This phenomenon is also indicated by the end of puberty in adolescents, which is observed not at the age of 16-17, as before, but at 11-12. Growth is stabilizing at an accelerated pace in modern youth. In young men, it comes in 18-19 years old, and not in 25-26, and in girls - at 16-17. The growth of boys in the period of 13-15 years is higher than the growth of their peers of the previous generation by 12-14 cm.
Acceleration has also affected some features of development in adolescence. Thus, in their sexual behavior, young people of 16-17 years old correspond to 19-20-year-olds who lived in the 60s.When confronted with an acceleratome, which is a full head taller than its parents, adults should remember that, as a matter of fact, he is still a child. And the requirements for it must be relevant.
Start of employment
The period of adolescence is the stage when a young person acquires a specialty. But it should be said that the beginning of the career path among modern youth is at a later period than in previous generations. So, at the beginning of the last century in Russia, a third of young people were already working by the age of sixteen. All the others began their career from the age of 20.
Today in our country there is a system of universal secondary education. That is why the 16-year period of adolescence falls on school years. The one who became a student, gets an education only to 22-25 years. Thus, a peculiar characteristic of adolescence at the present stage is formed. The maturity of a person as an individual (physical) does not coincide in time with the civil one (with the maturity of the personality).
Experts have noticed that 40-50 years ago, human self-consciousness finally developed by the age of 17-19.Today it is formed only by 23-25 years. Study significantly delays the interval of personality maturity, which leads some young people to irresponsibility and infantilism. The one who later enters the path of independent working life, often for a long time remains dependent on his parents. Possession of goods not earned with your own hands, dulls the ambition of man.
Young people are confident that parents will continue to provide them, and that they should not be afraid for their future. The main characteristic of adolescence in this case is expressed in the absence of purposefulness and willpower. And this is not surprising, because such young people do not need to fight for their existence. Everything “goes into her hands” by herself.
Psychological features of adolescence at the present stage are formed in connection with the small number of children in the family. Parents, grandmothers, grandfathers, as well as aunts and uncles make every possible effort to ensure that the only child is protected from the blows of fate and any mistakes. In this case, adults decide for a young man almost all life issues.Of course, such education leads to dependency and lack of independence. Adults, when confronted with these negative qualities, begin to talk about the shortcomings of modern young people, not seeing their own guilt in this phenomenon. It is always worth remembering that a person’s maturity comes only when he has responsibility for himself and for others. Permanent care for adults harms children. It does not give them the opportunity to acquire their own life experience, which leads to a lack of independence in decision making.
Attitude towards the older generation
Despite the emergence of new problems, in the modern world one has to answer the old questions concerning youth psychology. They take place due to the biological maturation of children. Teenagers and young men experience increased irritability and irritability due to changes in hormonal levels. In the body there is disharmony between the physical and mental appearance, projected by the young man to the whole world around him. With puberty, there is a desire to like, there is an increased interest in their own appearance.This exacerbates the problems of too large or small growth, hairstyles, body and clothing. That is why young men represent the outside world more conflict than adults, and the reverent attitude that young people have towards their appearance and clothes, the older generation, who have already forgotten their feelings at this age, are simply annoying.
In connection with the desire for self-affirmation, the young man, as a rule, adheres to black and white logic. It, like maximalism, as well as small everyday experience, leads to an exaggeration of the individuality of its own decisions and reasoning. The young men believe that the way they were, no one loved, did not fight and did not suffer. This is where a conflict arises with parents who are at the mercy of the habits and tastes of their own youth. Adults consider only their reasoning and preferences to be the only true. At the same time, young people lack an example of a rational attitude towards the surrounding reality, which is based on a sober assessment of the events taking place. The rank of the problem is often raised questions about the length of the hair and the width of the pants, the style of songs and music.
Adults also occasionally resent the desire of their matured child to look like everyone else.Sometimes this requirement is carried out to the detriment of the financial situation of the family and its own attractiveness. Such actions of young people indicate that the sense of belonging to a particular training or sports group is at the highest level.
Tips for parents
Often there is a psychological barrier between children and older people. Its origins are the reluctance and inability to listen to the child, the haste dictated by the modern rhythm of life, complacency and confidence in the infallibility of personal life experience, as well as the reluctance to look at the problem from the point of view of a young man. Such a barrier can be constantly strengthened by both children and their parents. Sometimes adults begin to believe that their children lack any value system. And this opinion, of course, does not contribute to spiritual rapprochement.
Such a frightening illusion arises from the fact that parents cannot reconstruct and begin to perceive their mature child as an independent person. In the absence of mutual understanding in the family, the young man begins to attach too great importance to communication with his peers.To solve this problem, parents should abandon the petty care of their offspring and begin to perceive it as an adult.
In adolescence, people live in the future. Real life seems to them only a preparation for adulthood. This circumstance allows the young men to more easily endure the trouble, not taking them seriously enough. That is why young people have reduced the sense of responsibility for their actions.
Maturity in a person will come when he realizes that there are no drafts in life. Everything that is done is done completely. This understanding forces the young man to make some efforts to implement the plans.