The crater is a wound on the body of the planet.
The etymology of the word "crater" originates from the ancient Greek "vessel for mixing water and wine." In geography, a crater is a geological formation on a rounded surface of a planet, similar to a bowl or funnel. But what are the craters, they know not all.
A bit of history
Traces from blows, craters called the craters Galileo, when he saw such traces on the moon. It's amazing how with a primitive telescope with a mere threefold magnification, he examined these "wounds" of our satellite. More surprisingly, he correctly identified the reasons for their occurrence. Modern science has been going to understand the origin of craters for much longer. Today, however, for impactites (minerals formed at the time of the impact of a cosmic body on the surface of the Earth), scientists can claim that this crater is the result of the arrival of a space object.
The indentations on the surface of the planet are divided into two categories:
- Craters whose appearance is associated with volcanoes.
- The wounds inflicted on the planet by the blows of cosmic bodies.
The first is called natural volcanic, the second - shock.
Mouth of the volcano - the cause of the crater
A volcano is a geological formation where hot molten magma is located close to the surface. When heated, gases and igneous lava expand and break out through the mouth of the volcano. A funnel forms at the site of the gases and magmas. Its size depends on the size of the volcano itself. It can be said that a volcanic crater is the top of a volcano, a place of volcanic products.
Burning and cooled
The largest volcanic craters are formed as a result of multiple volcanic eruptions through the same mouth. Such is the Diamond Head crater located in the Hawaii capital Honolulu. The discoverers called it "the diamond head of Hawaii," for the brilliance of volcanic quartz, which they took to be diamonds. This crater was formed due to the eruption of a volcano, extinct 150 thousand years ago. Its depth is 230 meters, and its diameter is more than a kilometer.
Here is an example of a completely different type of crater. The “gates of hell,” or Darvaza crater, has been burning in the Karakum desert of Turkmenistan since 1971.The dimensions of this flaming bowl are almost 70 meters in diameter and 30 meters in depth.
Traces of space travelers
The second group of craters that exist on the planet is shock. An asteroid or meteorite crater is a funnel,remaining after the collision of a space object with the surface of the Earth. There are more than 200 such traces on the planet. The crater from a meteorite is called astrobleme, which means "star wound."
These include the Manikuagan crater in Canada, whose dimensions are impressive. Its diameter is about 100 kilometers, and the meteorite that formed it flew to Earth in the Triassic period (215 million years ago). Maybe he and the company was the cause of the death of dinosaurs?
Nothing is empty
Craters of extinct volcanoes and long-standing asteroid falls are filled with a wide variety of ecosystems.
If the crater is deep enough and the water that has entered (rain, melt, underground) evaporate more slowly than it arrives, then a lake forms in the crater of the volcano.
There are a lot of amazing examples. Thus, the three lakes of the crater of the Kelimut volcano constantly change their color independently of one another from black to turquoise, brown, red and green.It all depends on the mineral composition of the volcanic bottom. More sulfuric and hydrochloric acid - the lake is green, hydrogen sulfide - red.
In dry land craters, ecosystems are formed, sometimes with endemic flora and fauna, or people live.
For example, the South Korean crater Sunrise Peak, which rose from the seabed four thousand years ago. Now there are six absolutely unique plant species growing here.
How a person uses craters
In many craters, people live and work. For example, in the crater on the Hawaiian island of Oahu filmed the series "Lost."
In lakes, people catch fish. Well-known aquarium fish cyclides are endemics of the African Lake Nyasa.
In the craters mined metals and minerals. Sulfur is mined in the crater of Ijen volcano. The sight is terrible! The miners die early.
Many craters are places of religious and mystical pilgrimage, like the already mentioned lakes of the Kelimutu volcano. They are even called the “Lake of the Old Men”, “The Lake of the Boys and Girls” and “The Enchanted Lake”.
Extremes ride to get adrenaline in Iceland to the Crater of Three Peaks - to watch boiling magma from a height of forty-storey house.
Nothing in nature man has not bypassed his attention. The main thing that we remember - everything on the planet is connected by very thin and fragile threads. Our task is not to break and not break these ties.