Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"

22-10-2017, 16:00
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
He began his life journey in the Soviet Airborne Forces, lived in a village, won international awards and died in the 90s unrecognized and forgotten.
The very fact that this “mechanism” has become a mass-produced car is amazing. It is as if a walking train for a children's park was made from a Proton rocket. Or they would try to turn an atomic submarine into a washing machine.
It sounds funny, but in fact there are no guarantees that you will have some unusually cool train or a cool washing machine.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
Lutsk is located in Western Ukraine. This is the administrative center of the Volyn region, and it is a small town with a long history. The same can be said about the Lutsk Automobile Plant - it never claimed any kind of large-scale production, but it left a noticeable mark in history. It all started almost by accident - in the 1950s, the repair shops transformed first into a car repair factory, then into a machine building plant.The plant made agricultural equipment and trailers, repaired trucks. And everything would have continued like this if not ...

To fight with the "light".

Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
Not too much like a car yet, is it? However, the developers loved their offspring - in some sources the first prototype, built in 1958, appears under the sweet name NAMI-049 "Spark". He had a permanent four-wheel drive, inter-axle and two cross-axle differential with locks, wheel gears, independent torsion bar suspension on the longitudinal levers ... not too strong fiberglass body and 22-strong motorcycle engine MD-65. This was acceptable for the prototype (or rather the undercarriage sample), but, of course, not for the adopted combat vehicle.
Conversion.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
The developed conveyor was put on production in Lutsk and received the name LuAZ-967. It may seem incredible, but these cars were produced from 1961 to 1989, from time to time undergoing modernization. The armament of the USSR army was transported in 1969, used in the troops of the Airborne Forces and motorized rifle units, and also delivered to the Warsaw Pact countries - for example, there were about 250 Soviet LuAZ armies in the GDR army.
It is said that there is still no direct analogue of this amphibian conveyor. The last "evolutionary stage" was the LuAZ-967M, which already resembled a light jeep more than a trolley with a motor. Some of the parts were unified with machines of other brands (electrics from UAZ, hydraulics from Moskvich), and the scope expanded - light machine guns were put on the machines. In the early 1990s, even triaxial variants appeared, but the matter did not move beyond the prototypes.

The first Soviet front wheel drive

Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
It was TPK that served as the basis for Volyn, a unique Soviet off-road vehicle. To adapt military equipment for the needs of the village — engineers of all countries and generations went this way, and for Soviet times this road was often simply the only one.
They refused from the “amphibiousness”, the driver and passengers were placed “in a civil way”, the canvas top was supplemented with stretch canvas sidewalls, and they tried to give the body lines ... well, let's call it a form. In all other respects, the “rural jeep” remained the same TPK. The first 30 copies under the name ZAZ-969 were released in 1964 in Zaporizhia, and in Lutsk the construction was brought to the industrial version and launched into a series in 1967.
Regarding which car is the right to be considered the first Soviet front wheel drive, disputes are still going on. The arguments may be different, but in fact it was the LUAZ-969V that was the first production car with a drive to the front axle. The fact is that ideologically this “rogue”, who grew out of TPK, is precisely the front-wheel drive, with a connected rear axle.
In addition, by the beginning of the serial production, the Melitopol Motor Plant did not have time to provide a new model with a rear axle reducer, and therefore this car went into series with front-wheel drive, and the letter B appeared in the model designation to distinguish the front-wheel drive version. The PTO shaft in the gearbox, which was not used for its intended purpose, was adapted to drive agricultural equipment.
Born to crawl.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
You can laugh at this car when you see it on the road, but it's really very good off-road. The military amphibious genes have done their job: in the back with an integrated spar frame, the engine, gearbox, main gear and propeller shaft are compactly located, with all the nodes in a single sealed case (the “gimbal” extends through the pipe).The independent torsion bar suspension on the longitudinal levers has huge strokes in the front and rear, and the standard 13-inch tires have very developed lugs.
Add to this wheel gears, lockable rear axle differential and a very successful weight distribution - the cabin and power unit shifted forward allowed the front axle to be properly loaded and provide excellent cross-country ability, even by refusing to lock the front differential. LuAZ has 280mm ground clearance and a very low center of gravity. And so on the roads he is able to "get" anyone. Take a look at the photo and compare it with the one where the TPK is climbing the exact same mound (and probably the same one). It seems that the "civilian" version copes with the task as well! In this case, the car turned out reliable and unpretentious as ... yes, yes, like a tank. A small tank with a motor from the "Zaporozhets".
On asphalt.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
Many fans of this car believe that the last circumstance - MeMZ engines, originally intended for Zaporozhtsev, seriously spoiled the characteristics of this car. It can be noted that, in fact, it was this engine that gave life to LuAZ - if it had not been, most likely, Volyn would not exist.
And besides, this unit worked much better on a front-engine off-road vehicle than on the rear-mounted “Constipation” - there was no family tendency to overheat. But on the other hand, it was the low-powered motor with air cooling that prevented Volyn from becoming a full-fledged car with a normal microclimate, noise level and dynamics. Such a contradiction.
How did it all go? Honestly, with difficulty. In order not to be unfounded, let us quote from the “test drive” of those times. This is how tester Vadim Aleksandrovich Kotlyarov wrote about his journey on this car from Lutsk to Tolyatti in the book “Oh, the roads” *: “The engine is rather frail, 40-strong. Therefore, the designers were forced to shamelessly lift up the gear ratios of the transmission - so that the car somehow moved. The first gear reminded me ... a tank (I’m still a tanker!). The engine roars, the car barely crawls. I turn on the second - everything is almost the same. Only on the last, IV transmission turns out something like a ride. Then it turned out that on it one could easily even get off the ground - of course, out of the blue or on a descent. ... Driving Volyn on a long-distance highway is not a job for the faint of heart.What is uphill, downhill - more than 60 km / h does not work. There is one salvation - non-stop measured ride. Then gradually you enter the rhythm, stopping only for refueling. ”
Modernization and World Success
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
In the Soviet years, the car several times tried to improve, and you can not say that without success. In 1975, Volyn was supplied with an evolved up to 40 hp. "Zaporizhzhya" motor MeMZ-969A. The modification was called logical - LuAZ-969A, and four years later, in 1979, it was launched into the LuAZ-969M series, that is, “modernized”. Two separate brake circuits with an amplifier on the front, a refreshed front panel, a different form of windshield, doors with locks (yes, there were no locks before!) And window frames, a plastic instrument panel, a safety steering column, seats from "Lada" ...
The front of the body made less angular, and the car immediately began to look different. It’s hard to believe, but a small car from a small Soviet town achieved international recognition: even before the serial production began, in 1978, at the International Motor Show in Turin, the LuAZ-969M entered the top ten SUVs in Europe! Of course, the SUV market, like the car market in general, was a bit different at that time, but nonetheless.
Nineties.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
The change of indices in the USSR for designation of models turned LuAZ-969M into LuAZ-1302. True, the indices changed in 1985, and the first cars from Lutsk with a new designation appeared, according to most sources, only in 1990. And it was already in many other, more "adult" car. Mainly because of the engine, the legacy of Zaporozhets was eliminated with the help of ... Tavria!
Yes, ZAZ once again came to the aid of colleagues from Lutsk, and the SUV finally got a normal engine with liquid cooling, which had 4 cylinders and 53 hp. All this guaranteed adequate accelerating dynamics, and most importantly - cost effectiveness. The 969M "on the passport" ate 10 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers, but if it was to travel at a speed of 60 km / h, and at high speeds it reared a 34-liter tank much more intense. The new Volyn was spending only 7.7 liters and at the same time could move faster - the maximum speed increased from 85 to 100 km / h.
On August 24, 1991, about a year after the start of the release of the LUAZ-1302, Ukraine withdrew from the USSR and became an independent state. Contacts LuAZ with Russia ceased. LuAZ-1302, in addition to the engine, borrowed seats from the Tavria (VAZ vehicles, for example, from the VAZ-2108, and there was no place to take),and also received reinforced spars and additional noise and vibration isolation. The machine turned out quite good - faster, quiet and economical than its predecessor. But for Russian fans of the brand such cars were no longer available.
Phenomenon of the name.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
It is funny, but in free sources it is not possible to find the exact date when this model got its own name - “Volyn”. And this is understandable - in the USSR, car names were given haphazardly, somehow almost by accident, and the closer to the collapse of the Union, the less and less.
A beautiful name for a car in the USSR was needed just for beauty, because the task was not to divert customers from competitors. Whatever it was, and the name "Volyn" in different sources is used as the first version of the SUV, LuAZ-969, launched in 1967, and to later models of this model, LuAZ-969M, produced from 1979 to 1990 . However, the people, imbued with this car, has generated its own versions of the name:
“Bagpipe” is not only a derivative of the name, but also a hint of the “noble” sound of the Melitopol engine;
"BMW" - stands for "Volyn Fighting Vehicle";
"Lunokhod" - for wheel gearboxes and a unique appearance;
"Luntik" - short for "lunar rover", appeared in the 2000s;
“Lumumik” - from LUMZ, the early designation of the LuAZ plant, when it was still engineering, not automotive;
“Louise” is a derivative of LuAZ;
"Jerboa" - for the ability to "jump" on any surface;
"Studebekker" - for voracity;
"Hummer" - for patency;
"Cheburashka" - for large headlights;
"Iron" - for the shape of the body;
"Fantômas" - for comedy-villainous appearance;
"Jewish armored car" - for the combination of qualities obtained for little money.
In addition, the car is called "Losharikom", "Chapikom" and "Piano" O_o. Perhaps LuAZ can be called the owner of the largest number of nicknames from cars of the former USSR. You must admit that the dismal Volyn against the background of this fair of achievements of folk art does not look very good.
Modifications.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
As we know, the TPK, from which Volyn was born, had several varieties, for example, triaxial machines. Of course, Volyn itself had plenty of options. It is characteristic that the absolute majority of them were already created in the post-Soviet period on the basis of model 1302 - the plant simultaneously tried to fit into the laws of a market economy and keep up with the fulfillment of the state order.There are modifications with a body, with an extended wheelbase, a rigid top, an extended rear overhang and four doors (one on the left, two on the right and the back), as well as special versions - Foros, which had a dzhipersky design, and a unique six-wheeled floating Geologist .
These cars, carrying on themselves the “birthmark” of the frontline army transporter, easily passed where the heavier GAZs, UAZs and even the Niva passed in, in hard-to-reach areas seriously facilitating the work of repair teams, geologists and doctors ... Unfortunately, now All these cars are already in the past, although the lack of roads on the territory of the former Soviet Union has not decreased significantly.
Attempts to continue.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
Why did Volyn with the motor from Tavria wear index 1302, because the first model according to the new classification had to start with “zero one”? And because the index of 1301 since 1984 has been occupied by a completely different car ... Unfortunately, LuAZ did not avoid the main problem peculiar to the entire Soviet auto industry, inertia.
The slow pace of the upgrade has largely spoiled the fate of Volyn. For example, according to some data, the first copies of the improved version of the model, 969M, completely ready for production,appeared in 1973, and the conveyor of these cars went only in the 79th! However, the engineers tried to reverse the situation as much as they could.
The initiative group of developers from the Leningrad laboratory of prototyping of promising cars NAMI went in a similar constructive scenario - in 1988-89, while the Russian institute was still in contact with the Ukrainian plant, they created an alternative version of the LuAZ-1301, also with a plastic, but more stylish and progressive body . The car with a six-speed gearbox, an engine from Tavriya, an original transmission scheme with a plug-in front end, an “integral” hood that opens with wings, and an attractive appearance even in today's times is called “LuAZ-Proto”. Yes, so the prototype remained.
End of story
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
So, attempts to launch a new model and keep afloat in the sea of ​​capital failed. At the turn of 1990-2000, LuAZ was engaged in contract assembly of VAZ and UAZ vehicles, and in 2006 fell under the wing of the Bogdan corporation, changed its name to Avtoboribny Zavod No.1, stopped producing cars, finally curtailed its own developments and switched to assembling buses .A few years later, the Bogdan Corporation itself, which had several assembly plants, fell into an extremely difficult situation under the influence of the economic crisis and difficult political situation in Ukraine - production stopped at all enterprises. At the time of the end of 2014, the entire Ukrainian auto industry, of which the Bogdan corporation was a part, actually ceased to function.
During the Soviet years, from 1966 to 1989, LuAZ produced about 182,000 cars. This is not much, but think about it: the plant, which represents only a few small workshops, became famous for only one civilian model. And it was he who became famous - Volyn is both loved and hated in the same way, no one is indifferent!
After all, being a unique “rogue”, the car is completely flawed in everything that concerns elementary comfort. But what a flight for creativity! As an object of tuning, Volyn is no less popular than as an object for inventing nicknames ** ... Love and hate are what make all of us, neighbors in the former Union, look so similar. We are able to love and hate equally strongly, and both the glands and people.
"Volyn-2"?
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"

In April 2014, the theme of LuAZ products received a completely unexpected continuation - a number of Ukrainian media stated that the state concern Ukroboronprom intends to resume production of the front-end conveyor for the needs of the Ukrainian army. The site for production was then only looked for (and now it is absolutely not clear whether it will be determined at all), but the equipment was recognized as irreplaceable, and all the old samples available in the army at that time were exhausted. So, there is no other way out than restarting production. The new conveyor should receive a new engine and gearbox, other lighting equipment and appliances.
Stories tend to repeat, and if it is decided to revive the TPK, then maybe a civilian car will be born again at its base? Designer Artem Sinitsyn even tried to imagine how such a machine could look like - although, of course, this is nothing more than a bold fantasy, especially considering the current realities. But, after all, all wars ever come to an end, and one wants to believe that Volyn-2 is possible, combining the permeability and unpretentiousness of the first car and the consumer qualities of today! ..Only here, unfortunately, this story has nothing to do with our domestic auto industry, in the now generally accepted meaning of the word “domestic” for Russians.
Life and death of the "Jewish armored car" - "Volyn"
If you have already firmly decided to become the owner of "Louise" or "Iron", workable copies on the territory of Russia can be found at prices ranging from 60,000 to 160,000 rubles. And for the maximum price - cars brought to an ideal.

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