The militarist - this concept did not arise yesterday, will disappear - not tomorrow
The concept of "militarism" is familiar to many more from school and is associated with negative images of militaristic Japan and fascist Germany in the first half of the twentieth century. We are increasingly hearing this word from television screens, read in online news and copyright columns. Who is the typical militarist, and what is militarism in general? When did this concept arise, and was it always used in a negative sense?
Meaning of the word "militarism"
There are several definitions of militarism. Soviet dictionaries closely associate this concept with capitalism. This is not surprising, since V. I. Lenin pointed to this connection. His point of view is not without logic - historically territorial expansion and the seizure of new markets by capitalist societies were conducted, as a rule, by force of arms. From the dictionaries of the Russian Federation, reference to capitalism was removed and a more general definition was formed, which can be applied to any state system.
The word "militarism" came from France of the XIX century (militarisme), it leads its origin from the Latin militaris, which literally means "military". Originally called the regime of Napoleon III. If you objectively approach the definition, you get something like the following. Militarism is a state system in which the defense budget is substantially increased, the army and the military play a primary role in the country, and the army component permeates all spheres of public life. At the same time, such a society is always ready to conduct military operations, and the strength of weapons is the main argument in solving international issues.
Who are the militarists?
If we apply the general definition of militarism to an individual, we can conclude that a militarist is a person who believes exclusively in the "right of the strong", divides the world around him into "his" and "enemies", is ready to support and participate in the organization of any military preparations in the country.
Do not confuse the militarist and the person who just cares about their safety. A reasonable citizen will try to secure his home as much as possible, perhaps, take self-defense courses, to always be ready to fight back intruders.Such a person simply thinks about himself and his family, he is not aggressive towards others and does not want his country to fight with anyone. A typical militarist subordinates all his interests to military preparations, models of weapons, and any conflicts that his state enters. Peaceful creative life for him is not the main life reference.
With countries, you can draw the same analogy. There are militarist states that use the armed forces at every opportunity to impose their will by military means. Their military budgets are huge, and governments have powerful lobbies for the defense industry. And there are countries that are forced to maintain their military potential at a level sufficient to repel militarist states. Moreover, the defense expenditures of the latter can also be very significant. But war is not an end in itself for them, but only a necessary measure to protect their interests.
History of militarism
Despite the fact that the concept of "militarism" first appeared in the 19th century, its history dates back to the times of antiquity and the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek is a typical militarist.This is evident in the continuous history of wars between Greek states. Philosophy did not prevent the Hellenes from exhilaratingly exterminating each other. The Roman Empire is a prominent representative of the militarist states. The whole history of Rome is the history of military expansion.
In general, militarism is peculiar to empires in the first place. The empire must constantly expand. As soon as this process ends, it disintegrates. The peak of imperial militarism came at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX century. The First World War was almost impossible to avoid, because all the empires of that time wanted it. The question was only in which alliances the states would enter. Practically every resident of Great Britain, France, Prussia, Germany, the Russian Empire, Italy is a militarist, this is evident from the hot support of the masses of the people for the start of hostilities.
After the horrors of the First World War, such sentiments in the world were much less extinguished, but not for long. The militarists, taking advantage of the revanchist sentiment in Germany, create a monster state. Fascist Germany is a model of the militarist country. From 1933 to 1945, all life in the Third Reich was subordinated to the idea of war.
Since the end of World War II, militarism has flourished. After Churchill’s Fulton speech, which proclaimed the Iron Curtain, it became clear that military spending in the world would only increase. This was followed by many local bloody wars around the globe, which do not cease to this day.
In our time, there is more than one militarist state. For example, to this type include the United States. The country has an unimaginable military budget, which is only growing, many military bases around the world and are officially ready to strike nuclear first. Inside the United States is a typical police state with permitted surveillance of citizens and the presumption of innocence of law enforcement officers (only in 2016, more than 500 people were shot by the police in the country). In the United States, the purchase and carrying of firearms is permitted, to which the lobbyists of the arms companies are to a great extent.
There are other militarized countries, such as Israel, Iran, China, and the Russian Federation. In these states, a significant part of the budget is also spent on defense needs, new weapons are produced, and the armies are maintained at high alert.
The future of militarism
I would like to hope that in the future everyone will know that a militarist is a person interested in military history and collecting models of military equipment of the past. Unfortunately, in the near future this is not exactly foreseen. The defense budgets of the countries are growing, armies are receiving more and more advanced weapons, and the number of nuclear powers has increased from 7 to 9 over the past 20 years.
Civil society is also rapidly militarizing. For example, in the Russian Federation a huge number of people are in favor of allowing the wearing of firearms, massively buying traumatic and hunting. In the absence of a decent civilian alternative, paramilitary children's organizations are created, the study of various martial arts and knife fights is very popular. In almost all countries, military hysteria is being intensified, opponents are accused of preparing for the invasion.