The Moscow Battle of 1941
The Second World War knows many significantvictories and fateful events. But the Moscow battle occupies a very special place in history. It is here, under the walls of the White-stone, the German army suffered its first serious defeat. Near Moscow was practically buried implementation of Hitler's plan "Blitzkrieg", and the myth of the invincibility of the army of the Third Reich was debunked forever.
In general, the Moscow battle consisted of a complex set of battles and operations that unfolded over a vast territory and continued in the autumn of 1941 and in the winter of 1942.
In these events, more than two million people, two and a half thousand tanks, nearly two thousand airplanes and more than twenty-five thousand different combat vehicles took part on both sides of the front.
By the nature of the fighting, the events near Moscow can be divided into two stages: defensive and offensive.
The Moscow Battle of 1941: the Defensive Stage
In the fall of 1941, Soviet troops were forced toleave Kiev, Smolensk, retreat to Leningrad. Kharkiv, Donetsk region, Crimea were under threat of seizure. German troops were carrying huge losses of soldiers and military equipment, but, nevertheless, they still possessed an offensive initiative and were furiously torn to the east.
At the Hitler's headquarters, aa special operation "Typhoon" to capture the capital of the USSR. According to this operation, the city was subject to imprisonment in an absolute blockade, so that no resident could leave it. Next followed the complete destruction and flooding of Moscow. Those who survived there should not have been. Ruins were supposed to be covered with sand, and on top of the monument in honor of the invincible German army. It is significant that the stone for this monument was brought to Moscow along with military equipment.
In the Moscow direction at that timeThere were three Soviet front lines: Western, Bryansk and Reserve. Against them was the German army of the "Center" group of more than a million soldiers. In it, more than half of the guns, tanks and airplanes were concentrated from the total number, which at that time the Hitler's army had at its disposal.
At that time, the Soviet army had a much smaller stockpile of weapons, and its quality was worse. Therefore, it was very difficult for the Soviet troops on the defensive stage.
Mozhaisk and Volokolamsk directionsrepresented the shortest way to Moscow. It was there that the first fierce fighting began for the approaches to the capital. Soviet soldiers had a truly heroic resistance. They compensated for the unevenness of forces with personal heroism. At the price of their own lives, they tried not to miss the enemy to the heart of the Motherland.
In Moscow and the suburbs, a state of siege was declared. Residents were preparing to defend their city.
However, at the end of October 41 the commanderZhukov proposed to replace the defense with a counteroffensive. The task of the Soviet troops was to smash the shock groups of the enemy and to eliminate a close threat to Moscow.
Moscow battle, winter of 1942: the stage of the offensive
On December 6, the Red Army inflicted the firstA serious counterblow to the north and south of Moscow. The strip of the offensive unfolded for 1000 kilometers - from Yelets to Kalinin. By December 9, our troops are able to push back the enemy by almost 40 kilometers. The Germans, although they had excellent weapons, but were completely unprepared for fighting in the conditions of a harsh Russian winter and the invincible personal heroism of Soviet soldiers. The lack of reserve troops of the enemy also affected.
Hitler was forced to sign a transfer ordertheir troops into the defense regime, removing from office at the same time a large part of their generals and switching the supreme command completely to themselves. But the situation at the front it failed to break.
By the new 1942, German troops were thrown from Moscow already for two hundred kilometers, Kalinin and Kaluga were liberated from the Nazis. There was no immediate threat of taking Moscow.
The Meaning of the Moscow Battle
This event, undoubtedly, affected the course of the secondworld war, since the Moscow battle brought the first impressive victory to the Soviet troops. The capture of the capital would paralyze the whole country and entailed the unconditional victory of fascist Germany. And here, not only the psychological component played its role. In the Moscow region was concentrated many industrial and defense complexes, which worked throughout the war. 70% of the planes for the army were produced here, most of the shells.
After the enemy was repulsed from the walls of the capital, the morale of Soviet soldiers rose significantly. This enthusiasm and unconditional faith in victory helped later in the battle of Kursk, and at Stalingrad.
From a strategic point of view, the Moscow battle helped to defeat the best German forces - infantry and tank.
Soviet troops were significantly reformed after this battle. Separate disparate parts, already tested in combat, were combined into new divisions with confident and experienced commanders.
It was Moscow that became the Rubicon, through which the German troops could not cross the Second World War.