Types of landscape painting - description, features and reviews
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is an image of nature in all its manifestations. These are mainly mountains, valleys, trees, rivers and forests. The main feature is the presence of a wide view, as well as its elements, located in a coherent composition. There are different types of landscape, including rural and urban, sea and river, religious and futuristic.
Types of landscape: the essence
The most popular element of any landscape is the sky. Weather in all its manifestations is also included in the composition. Views of landscape in art can be completely imaginary (imaginary) or copied from reality with varying degrees of accuracy. If the main purpose of the image is to display the actual, specific location, especially for buildings, it will be called a topographical (realistic) view.
The concept of "landscape"
In the visual arts, the term "landscape" is derived from the Dutch wordlandchap(plot of land) and describes any painting or drawing, the main subject of which is the image of a picturesque view. Examples include meadows, hills, mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, forests, coastal views and seas. The picture can be an image of a real place, or it can be an imaginary or idealized scene.
The recognition of nature and its selection as a specific subject of art is a relatively recent phenomenon. Until the 17th century, the landscape was bounded by backgrounds of portraits or paintings devoted mainly to religious, mythological or historical illustrations. Today, a beautiful view of the landscape continues to be the main theme in art.
Landscape over the centuries
In the works of the 17th century artists Claude Lorraine and Nicolas Poussin, landscape background began to dominate over the demonstration of historical events. However, their interpretation of the landscape was somewhat stylized or artificial. They tried to adopt the views of the landscape of Greece and Rome, and their work became known as the classic landscape.At the same time, some Dutch artists, such as Jacob van Ruysad, developed a much more naturalistic form of painting, based on what they saw around them.
When the arts were classified by the French Academy in the seventeenth century, the landscape was placed fourth in importance among the five genres. Nevertheless, landscape painting became increasingly popular in the XVIII century, despite the predominance of classical motifs.
Landscape and its position in the hierarchy of genres
Landscape was an established genre in Chinese art by the fourth century AD, but in Western art, landscape painting originated before the Renaissance art in the sixteenth century. Of course, many artists from Roman times and earlier included picturesque landscapes and views of nature in their paintings, but they were auxiliary elements of the main theme of the picture. The main problem with the landscape was that it was very low in the academic distribution of genres.
The hierarchy of visual arts in the Renaissance had the following form:
- Historical painting.
- Portrait art.
- Painting, that is, scenes from everyday life.
- Still life.
These ratings were finally set out in 1669 by Andre Felibien, secretary of the French Academy. Thus, the world of art, including its patrons, teachers and artists, did not take landscape painting seriously and ascribed great value to historical works, portraits and genre pictures. Neoclassical and academic schools followed Greek art in giving primacy to the human body, especially the naked.
Naturalistic landscape pattern boom
In the nineteenth century, there was a real surge in naturalistic landscape design, partly due to the notion that nature is a direct manifestation of God, and partly due to the growing alienation of many people from nature due to increasing industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the traditional hierarchy of genres collapsed.
Landscape artists of the XIX century entered into a large-scale romantic movement, it was at this time that landscape painting finally became a worthy genre in European art academies and became widespread throughout the world.In the second half of the twentieth century, the definition of a landscape was called into question. The genre has expanded to urban and industrial landscapes, and artists began to use less traditional means when creating landscape works.
Three types of landscape art
The painting or photo, which depicts nature, is called landscape art. Although each artist has his own style, this genre is usually grouped into three broad categories:
- Representative landscape art is the most basic genre. In detail, to create an unrealistic effect, no special colors or filters are used. In contrast, representative landscape art focuses on the natural beauty of nature and paints a realistic picture of the subject.
- Impressionist landscape art focuses on depicting a realistic scene in an almost unrealistic light. This is achieved using several methods, including splitting the foreground with the background using soft focus, using unusual lighting techniques, or turning on saturated, bright or unnatural colors.Impressionist landscape art largely responds to the look of an artist or photographer and the ability to create a stunning natural image.
- Abstract landscape art relies less on the environment of the landscape and more on the representation of the main subject of the image. In the abstract, the landscape may be the background, and in the foreground there may be a focus on one component, for example, a branch of an unusual shape or a shadow of a large object.
Each style has its own characteristics, varying colors, lighting and props. In landscape paintings, as a rule, additional elements are added except the landscape itself. Traditionally, these are animals and people. The purpose of the landscape part is to demonstrate the natural beauty of nature, whether soothing, cruel or surreal.
Landscape painting refers to a work of art in which the main focus is on the image of nature (mountains, forests, rocks, trees, rivers, valleys, etc.). The earth is a wonderful creation, from barren deserts to lush tropical forests, from endless oceans to a cloudy sky.Throughout history, artists have found inspiration in the mysterious beauty of nature and the greatness of the various landscapes of the Earth.
Cityscape: views of the cityscape
Landscape paintings are not limited to images of the earth and nature. For example, they may also include images of buildings, streets, bridges. This type of landscape is called urban. His sketches may include various historical or modern objects. Types of urban landscape are determined in accordance with what is depicted in the picture. One of the most attractive are the images of palaces and castles, religious monuments, as well as residential buildings of the XVII-XIX centuries.
Rural and park landscape
When nature and the results of conscious human activity come together, a certain dissonance will necessarily arise. But there is an environment where these two conflicting parties are able to agree among themselves and achieve relative equilibrium. First of all, it is the countryside and landscape parks, where nature is complemented by architectural elements. Rural landscape was one of the most popular themes of the landscape at all times.Artists depicted a house on a hill or near a pond, green meadows with grazing sheep, country roads, and so on.
Flat objects are different from three-dimensional volumetric, having a length, width and height. One of the variants of the image of the landscape is that the image is given a more or less clearly defined relief. This type of landscape is called topographical or sculptural.
Another type of landscape painting is documentary landscapes depicting scenes from everyday life. The included human figures deserve no less attention than trees or houses. On the one hand, they add life to the composition, on the other hand, they emphasize the size of the surrounding space in comparison with a person.
Landscapes with animals
A distinctive feature of the landscape is that with their help a feeling of peace, satisfaction and harmony is created. However, wildlife is a continuous movement. Trees, plants, rain, wind - these are all dynamic and changeable factors; therefore, the placement of animals among them as an integral part of all wildlife is quite natural.
Types can be very different: the landscape of mood symbolizes the lyrical coloring of the senses, the architectural is very reminiscent of the urban, sea (marina) and river show the infinite beauty of the water landscape. Historical and heroic types are associated with great warriors, mythical heroes and gods. Decorative landscape serves as an excellent interior decoration. A certain number of species does not exist. Depending on the artist’s vision, an industrial one (city views), landscapes of an epic, romantic or even cosmic character are distinguished.
The main feature of this genre of fine art is that the main subject of the image is nature in its original form or transformed by man.