What should be the temperature of the processor of a personal computer
Owners of personal computers have long been accustomed to, that the work of the system unit is accompanied by noise. If you look inside the case, you can see the "culprit" - it is installed on the cooling system, consisting of a fan and a metal radiator.The flow of air passing through the ribbed surface, meets resistance and creates the very noise background. There are modifications in which, thanks to the use of heat pipe technology and an increase in the heat dissipating area of the radiator, it is possible to abandon the need to use forced airflow, having obtained an absolutely silent system. The task of all these solutions is simple - to cool the chips.
Remembering the basics of electrical science ...
All microelectronics inside the computer consists of conductive tracks, transistors, inductors and other related elements.It is known that when current flows through a conductor, the latter heats up, caused by internal resistance, which is brilliantly proved by the formulas Om. In microcircuits characterized by a high density of the arrangement of elements, the heat dissipation of each individual block is summed up, reaching impressive values.So, for the processor Core i7-3770K, the power is more than 70 W, which is comparable to an incandescent lamp (the one that can be used in incubators for chickens). With an increase in the frequency of operation, heat generation increases, the resistance changes, and the correct control of electronic keys becomes impossible. With existing technologies, the heating of elements is an extremely undesirable factor, which cannot be eliminated (quantum computers and superconductors will be left out of the scope of this article).
Toasting the microprocessor ...
Perhaps, there is no such forum of computer subjects, which would not raise the question of what temperature should be at the processor. And this is not the idle curiosity of users. The fact is that when the components are heated above a certain limit, the computing system begins to fail, causing application errors.Also, overheating of the video chip causes the appearance of the so-called artifacts on the screen - image defects in the form of stripes, dots, distortions of the color palette. Ultimately, the system “hangs up” or even the component fails. Knowing what the temperature of the processor should be, you can control the amount of heat in order to avoid the above-described "symptoms".
Determine the current temperature without load
Every computer owner who wants stable operation of the computing system is obliged to monitor the temperature regime of the main elements and take measures for its normalization if necessary. You can find out how much the processor is hot with the help of the diagnostic program Aida64. Running it, you need to follow the menu tree to "Computer - Sensors" and carefully study the data of the "Temperature" block. Here the lines "CPU1 / CP2 ..." are important.Values depend on current load and cooling system efficiency. For example, the base cooler cools the Core i3 2120 to 35 degrees at room temperature. We recommend thinking about cleaning the cooling system and organizing additional airflow in the event thatif without load, these values exceed 45-50 degrees (for laptops the permitted range is higher). Problems arise when the amount of heating exceeds the allowable level.
What should be the temperature of the processor
There are several ways to determine the temperature limit. For example, having familiarized with the passport to the microprocessor which is in a packing box. You can find out what the processor temperature should be with the help of the same Aida64 - in a few mouse clicks. To do this, open the "Motherboard - CPU" branch and find the "Manufacturer CPU" block. There is an active link "Product Information", after clicking on which will launch the browser and go to the site of the microprocessor developer. Using the example of Intel, the user will only have to look at the table, select Package Specifications in it, and become familiar with the allowable temperature Tcase. So, Core i3 2120 can heat up to 69.1 degrees Celsius. For AMD products, the algorithm is the same. We strongly recommend not to search the forums for the answer to the question of what should be the temperature of the processor, and use the data provided by the manufacturer.Note that sometimes the sites additionally contain the parameter TjMAX, which indicates the limiting amount of heating of the core crystal (and not the Tcase cover). Its value is higher by about 30.
Examples of permissible temperatures
Below we provide a list of some models of microprocessors with an indication of permissible heating:
- AMD Phenom II x6 2800 MHz at a power of 125 W allows the temperature to rise to 62 degrees.
- AMD Athlon 2 x4 2600 MHz has 100 watts of power with an acceptable heating up to 70 degrees.
- AMD Athlon 64 x2 2000 MHz has a capacity of only 35 W, heating from 49 to 78 degrees. (depending on the revision).
- Intel Core i3 3240T can heat up to 65 degrees.
- Intel Core Core i5 3475S allows 69.1 degrees.
- top Intel Core i7 4770 can heat up to 72.72 degrees.
Achieving this limit value does not mean an instantaneous failure of the chip.In modern microprocessors, various software and hardware methods of keeping the temperature within acceptable limits (reducing the multiplier, skipping cycles, resetting the reference frequency) are used. But when activating these mechanisms, one should not expect stable operation from a computer.
Heating under load
We have previously indicated a method for determining the current processor temperature using the Aida64 information application.The disadvantage of this approach is the need for an additional program to load the computational cores. Otherwise, no load temperature (or low level) is displayed. Because of this, a comparison of permissible and attained heating is not possible. This limitation can be overcome using the free OCCT application. After pressing the "On" button on the main screen, the process of testing the main computing units will begin. In the next window at the same time provides sensor data, including heating (Core # 1 ...). Knowing what should be the temperature of the processor, you can compare the actual values with acceptable values. If the microcircuit heats up higher than the manufacturer allows, then it is necessary to revise the cooling system and / or change it to a more efficient one.