What will surprise Sergiev Posad: Toy Museum!
Russia has long been famous for folk self-madethe important place among which was occupied by toys. "Funny" goods were made of wood, papier-mache, from clay and other material. Most of all, Sergiev Posad toys were in demand.
From Moscow it's easy to give
Sergiev Posad is located only in seventywith a few kilometers from Moscow. This small, but beautiful town is included in the Golden Ring of Russia. An excursion there will bring pleasure to many travelers, especially if they set out on a journey with their children. Sergiev Posad's attractions are very interesting, the Toy Museum among them is not the last place.
Of course, in the first place this Russian townis known to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, in which the relics of St. Sergius of Radonezh are buried. It is to this holy city that it owes its existence. In 1340, as a monk, he founded a small abode, lost in the woods. Around the monastery monastery began to arise small settlements. Over time, one of the largest monasteries of Russia was formed here. By the decree of Catherine II in 1782 individual settlements were connected to the city, which was named Sergiev Posad. During the years of Soviet power (1930-1992) the city had another name - Zagorsk.
Art crafts flourished
Bogomolets flocked to the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra withall the ends of the world. This contributed to the development of various crafts in the surrounding villages. Products folk craftsmen were in demand. Particularly attracted to the pilgrims toys, carved out of wood.
There is a legend that the beginning of this case laid the foundation for the relics of the monastery of St. Sergius of Radonezh. Bogomolets bought Trinity toys for their children.
Among pilgrims who came to pray inLavra, there were Russian tsars, too, their children did not disdain wooden toys. "Funny" cars with horses, wolves, spoons, brothers - all this was in the collection of royal children. Therefore it is not surprising that the Sergiev Posad Toy Museum is now famous.
The beginning of time
At the origins of the museum was Nikolai DmitrievichBartram, artist, teacher and art historian. He comes from the Kursk province. Health did not allow Nicholas to finish the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. But he was carried away by the creation of toys and created a workshop in his native estate, where many remarkable products were made under his guidance and his drawings.
Over time, Nikolai Bartram began to study the history of the creation of toys, and then his personal collection appeared. He traveled through many centers of handicraft industry in Russia and brought interesting finds from everywhere.
In 1904 N.D.Bartram settled in Moscow and soon began to manage the art department of the Handicraft Museum, where he again created a workshop. However, until the moment when the Toy Museum in Sergiev Posad appeared, there was still a lot of time left.
From personal collection to the museum
Even when moving to Moscow, Nikolai Bartram hada significant collection of toys. In subsequent years, it not only replenished, but also expanded due to household utensils, folk costumes and even architectural toys.
Since 1910, the artist caught fire with the idea of creatingmuseum of toys. He hatched various plans, did projects and sketches. And in 1918 in Moscow the Toy Museum really opened. At first he was located in Bartram's own apartment and occupied four rooms. All exhibits were divided into 4 sections: puppet theater toys, folk toys, entertaining books and educational games.
The collection of the museum was constantly replenished, places inthe artist's apartment was not enough. In 1924, the museum moved to a separate building - the Khrushchev-Seleznevs' estate, which was located on Prechistenka. The popularity of the Toy Museum in those years was inferior only to the Tretyakov Gallery. In addition to the fact that there was a remarkable collection of toys, which, incidentally, could even be touched by hands, the museum staff worked with children. Innovative methods, which they used in their work, attracted children and their parents there.
Nikolai Dmitrievich Bartram led the museum until his death, which happened in 1931.
Sergiev Posad Toy Museum
Why, after the death of Bartram, the museum was transferred tolimits of Moscow, it is difficult to say. Perhaps, after all, it was Sergiev Posad that was always famous for toy crafts. And today there is a factory for the production of toys.
First, the museum's funds for a long time roamed in variousbuildings, but in 1980 he was finally allocated a separate room, in addition, in one of the most beautiful corners of the city Sergiev Posad. The Toy Museum is located near the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, on Volokusha mountain, in the old building of the former commercial school. This red brick mansion was built on a hill above a picturesque pond. He himself is a landmark of the city of Sergiev Posad. The Toy Museum stores over 30 thousand exhibits in its walls. These are toys of different peoples not only in Russia but also in the world.
The first matryoshka is also here
It is difficult to say what is most attractive inthis museum: products of the XVIII-XIX centuries or modern masterpieces. Here is a peasant girl in a kokoshnik, and here are the painted ladies, hussars, vanka-vstanka and Barbie dolls. Eyes run up! One of the first Russian dolls, which is stored in the museum, has an age of at least a hundred years.
In the museum's collection there are favorite toys of the heirNicholas II, Tsarevich Alexei: models of cars, steamships, locomotives, airplanes. And also a unique kit, delivered to him from France, containing several games: dominoes, lotto, checkers, serezo, ping-pong and others.
The admiration of the products of the village mastersBogorodskoye, which is located under the city of Sergiev Posad. The toy museum allows not only to examine these wooden products, made mainly from limes, but also to see how the simplest mechanisms (button, ballast, slats) bring them into action.
Today in the Sergiev Posad Museum operateseveral expositions, among which the most important can be called "Russian folk toy". Then followed the "Russian and West European toy of the XIX - early XX century", "Christmas and New Year's toy", "Children's portrait." There is also an exposition "Toy of the East".
If you have doubts about what is worthwhether to visit the Toy Museum (Sergiev Posad), photo expositions will help make the final decision. By the way, the museum operates a toy store, so home from the trip you can bring interesting souvenirs.
Back in childhood for a short time will allow you to visit the city of Sergiev Posad, Toy Museum - the main reason for that.