Who is a philosopher and what does he do? Ancient philosophers
To the question: "Who is a philosopher?" the answer gives a simple translation of the word from Latin - "loving wisdom." In other words, it is a professional thinker whose activity is aimed at solving issues of worldview. According to scientists, originally the word "philosopher" occurred, which meant an educated person, a scientist. Then came the word “philosophy” derived from it.
The appearance of the word "philosopher"
The concept of the word "philosopher" is associated with Pythagoras, who introduced the term in the IV century BC. er Surrounding people called him a sage, but he did not agree with this, said: "I am not a sage, I love wisdom." Here it is necessary to understand the meaning of the word "sage". This is a man who has learned the meaning of life, the essence of truth.
Then who is a philosopher? This is a man walking along the path of knowledge. He seeks answers to the questions of being, while the sage knows them. By definition of Pythagoras, only God can be a Sage.
The word "philosopher" is found for the first time in Heraclitus, which gives him a definition: "a man who investigates the nature of things." There are many trends (schools) of philosophy, which are based on different visions of the world, the order of things.
Who is a philosopher? This is a person who reflects on the essence of being, striving to recognize the very essence of what is happening and belongs to a certain philosophical trend.
Philosophy and Science
From philosophy formed and grew all the modern sciences. In the ancient Greek city of Miletus (ancient Greek colony in Asia Minor) there was the first school of philosophers. It was founded by Thales, whose students subsequently founded the Ionian philosophy. The ancient philosophers Anaximander, Anaximenes, Archelaus (the teacher of Socrates), Anaxagoras belonged to her.
It is from here that the origins of the ancient Greek, and, consequently, European sciences came out: biology, geography, physics and, as many scientists believe, mathematics. The concepts of cosmology and cosmogony that existed before them in abstraction and symbolism, their representations that are present in mythology and traditions, were directed to the field of scientific and practical interest.I would like to emphasize one important fact: often outstanding scientists were philosophers. An example is the great Mikhail Lomonosov, who can be attributed to the first Russian philosophers-materialists.
Philosophy and religion
Philosophy has not bypassed religion, which, like a magnet, draws upon itself the higher minds of this science. This is not surprising, since the issues of morality, consciousness, morality, inexplicable faith of most of humanity that no one in the world could see, are fundamental in any religion, excite the minds of thinkers of different eras.
From the time of the first philosophers of ancient Greece to our times, philosophers tried to comprehend and understand how to get rid of earthly problems and merge with the divine. To the question: "Who is a philosopher?" In the Middle Ages, the following definition was given: "The Thinker who is trying to know the world through the Holy Scriptures." Religions were devoted to such works by such great minds as Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Thomas Aquinas, Feuerbach, Nietzsche, Vl. Solovyov, N. Berdyaev, P. Florensky, S. Bulgakov and others.
Features of Russian philosophy
The features of a philosophical trend, a school, however, as well as the views of an individual philosopher, may depend on different conditions.This is a place of residence, national peculiarities, social and political structure, history and development of the country, traditions and so on. Large differences between the philosophy of European and Eastern (Chinese, Indian) are observed in relation to religion.
In the historical and philosophical process, a prominent place is occupied by Russian philosophers. It is believed that this science in Russia appeared much later than in Western countries. It was influenced to a greater extent by the Byzantine and ancient philosophies, later on Western European, in particular, the German classical type of thinking. But one of the most important factors influencing the originality of the Russian form of consciousness was precisely the national peculiarity, specificity, traditions and history of the country.
Philosopher as a profession
Graduates of modern universities who have received a philosophical education occupy positions in leading companies due to the ability to think outside the box, analyze. This gives them a great advantage over ordinary managers. Who is a philosopher in the modern world? This is a person who predicts the future development of a process. His ability to think logically, critical analysis of past and present,the ability to identify new problems, finding forms and methods for their resolution gives an advantage over other specialists.
The word "philosopher" and the very concept of philosophy, which has several definitions, cannot be divided. The first fundamental description of the discipline is the science that studies the concept of being, the meaning of life, the place of man in the world. The second, defining the main task of philosophy, is the definition of truth.
Do philosophers need these days
All the questions that were investigated by ancient philosophers have long become separate sciences. Do we need philosophers in our time? After all, the world around us, the relationship of man, society are studied by other scientists.
Today's philosopher is a person who investigates questions that modern science does not answer. Consider, for example, the problem of consciousness. There is the Institute of the Human Brain of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which is engaged in the study of gray matter, gives information about the structure, composition, principle of operation. But the results obtained cannot even approximately answer what consciousness is. This question requires philosophical reflection. There are a lot of such problems. For example, the problem of survival.
Our world is built according to the principle of power, where a stronger, more agile, and clever survives. Natural disasters, man-made emergencies, how to survive, what qualities are dominant in the world - these problems are dealt with by philosophers of survival.
Modern philosophical questions
Life does not stand still. A person develops, his views, society and relationships. The philosopher can comprehend and describe how modern society understands the eternal questions of being, the essence of man, the meaning and life itself as a whole. The relationship of man and society - which philosopher avoided studying this problem?
Today, there are many adjacent areas where philosophy interacts with other sciences, such as ecology, psychology, linguistics, neurophysiology, and bioethics. The issues of genetic engineering, cloning are relevant both for modern society and for science, in particular, for medicine.
In politics, issues of feminism, urbanism, migration, refugee rights, and everyday life research are relevant to philosophers. Modern aesthetics studies even anime - Japanese animation.
A frivolous, at first glance, popular topic concerning children and young people is a subject of substantial research.The key function of modern philosophy is to study the world around us, identify the problems of humanity and suggest ways to solve them.