World Rice Leaders
Rice in many countries of the world is the staple food, successfully competing with wheat and corn. This cereal is the basis of nutrition in Asia, where rice replaces bread, potatoes and cereals. They love rice in the countries of Europe, the USA, Canada, Latin America, where the cereal is imported in large quantities. In some EU countries, in particular, in Bulgaria, they learned how to produce rice independently, so as not to spend money on its purchase.
During the year, every person in the world eats up, on average, almost58 kilograms of rice. This indicator applies mainly to Asian countries of Myanmar, Vietnam, China, and Japan. The average European eats only two or three kilograms of rice.
The top 10 rice-producing countries have remained unchanged for more than ten years. The top three are formed by China, India and Indonesia, although primacy with them is constantly being challenged by Vietnam, Bangdaesh Myanmar. It was the last state in the 1960-1970s. was the world's leader in rice production.Interestingly, the performance of this cereal is not the highest in those countries that are in the TOP. Most of the grain from 1 hectare is produced in Australia (102 centners), Egypt (95 centners), the USA (86 centners) and Turkey (81 centners).
The largest consumers of rice belong to Vietnam, Bangladesh, Indonesia, India, and China.
Experts say that rice production will increase this year, reaching 500 million tons. This means that the number of people working on the plantations will also constantly increase.
Rice production in the country is declining, and is now around8 million tons per year. This figure has decreased by almost 2.5 million, compared with 2009-2011. This is due to the fact that rice production is under state regulation of cultivation, caused by the formation of huge stocks of cereal in the country. As a result, grain prices have increased. Sometimes the rice crop in Japan can be harvested twice a year if favorable conditions exist. Japanese rice is different from other varieties because it has white color, small size, oval shape and a large volume of grain.
This country breaks the traditional stereotypes regarding rice cultivation monopolized Asia.The production of this grain crop is constantly growing, and today it is12.6 million tons. Brazilians eat rice as a main garnish for lunch or dinner. The stores sell packs of cereal, having a different volume. Pack size can vary from 1-2 to 10-15 kilograms.
Another state where rice growing grows from year to year. Achieving an increase in production volumes due to the expansion of acreage, hiring more agricultural workers. In recent years, rice production in the Philippines has ranged from16.2-18 million tonsin year. The main crop is harvested in mid-December, according to the results of which the amount of harvested grain is 10-11 million tons. During the other months, several more millions of rice are produced. It all depends on the weather conditions and the time of ripening of the grain.
Rice production in this country is constantly growing, increasing, on average, by 0.5-0.6 million tons each year. In 2015—2017 the size of the harvest was equal18.5-19.1 million tons. In this regard, the pace of import and export of rice from Thailand to other countries of the world is constantly increasing.Analysts, estimating the agricultural sector, predict that rice production will grow to 26-27 million tons. So far, such volumes are targets for farmers in Thailand, since the reserves of Thai rice are shrinking and require replenishment.
The government of the country is committed to constantly increasing rice fields. This will help Myanmar out of the crisis caused by the consequences of the military dictatorship. At the beginning of the 21st c. The situation with rice production began to change for the better when in 2002 a harvest of 21.9 million tons was obtained. Now production has reached37 million tons. It was possible to improve not only the quantity of the crop, but also its quality, which contributes to an increase in exports.
UN experts say that in 10-15 years Myanmar will become the leader in rice cultivation, pushing China and India to the back. The advantage of the country is the presence of low production costs, abundant irrigation of fields, interest of the population in improving the quality of the crop.
Rice from Myanmar is already a serious competitor to Pakistani, Indian, Vietnamese cereal, as it is cheaper by $ 20 per ton of rice.
In 2015, the country collected45.2 million tons of ricethat was a record for Vietnam. In 2016, production decreased slightly, reaching 44.5 million tons. The harvest of 2017 may be less by 700 thousand tons, which is caused by severe drought, irrigation of fields with sea water, and soil salinity. The highest crop of cereals is harvested in spring and winter, and another in summer. Rice collected in the winter-spring period is exported to other countries.
More than 60% of the total population of the country work on the rice plantations of the country, which makes it possible to receive a constant infusion of money into the country's budget (20%). According to the UN World Food and Agriculture Organization, Bangladesh produces more than47 million tons of rice. This allows the government to provide residents of the country with a permanent food product, the consumption of which is constantly increasing.
In 2016, the fields were collected79.14 million tons of rice, which is 4 million more than in 2015 (75.4 million tons). Such high results were achieved by Indonesian workers due to excellent weather, climate and regular irrigation. Indonesia has been self-sufficient in rice for several decades, although the acreage has decreased. Many lands were given for housing construction.This led to the fact that the government began to increase the area of rice fields and buy several million tons of rice a year in other Asian countries. Thus, internal reserves and grain reserves are maintained.
Rice in this part of Asia is harvested several times throughout the year. And so it has been for several thousand years, which is connected with a special regime of rivers that irrigate the fields. Each plantation is fenced off from another by earthen ramparts. Rice plantations are visible everywhere in India; therefore, the main direction of agriculture is rice production. The total annual yield is almost108 million tonsproducts.
China ranks first not only in the production of rice (142-144.5 million tons / year), but also the number of varieties. In the Celestial Empire, almost 10 thousand rice varieties are known, differing among themselves in such parameters - color, size, density, growing technology.
Plantations for planting rice are treated in a special way. At first, the land is plowed with bulls, and then rice shoots are thrown into the ground plentifully filled with water. They are produced in special greenhouses, greenhouses. Before planting sprouts are selected to find the highest quality.Watering plantations is carried out using water channels.