You are 99.99% father

"Why, he's black," said the blond haired,
having seen on hands at the wife the dark-skinned first-born.

The number of cases of establishing the probability of paternity has recently increased significantly, one can say that it has become even fashionable. The promotion of DNA research has become so popular that people think that one person out of millions can be found. But what is behind these loud words, "DNA examination expertise," only a few know.

A bit of history

Even at the time of Hippocrates (460 BC) there was a need to establish the fact of pregnancy and the duration of its course. In the manuscripts of Moses, the Talmud (1st century BC), the necessity of inviting doctors to establish the time of conception was justified. In Rome (488 BC), 12 tables were taken, according to which a doctor must be present during the examination of cases related to pregnancy, abortion and childbirth. That is, already in those days there was a need to establish the fact of paternity, since motherhood from that time to the present is indisputable.

Since the emergence of forensic medicine as a separate branch of medicine, paternity issues are the sole competence of forensic medical examination.

Methods of probabilistic determination of paternity

1. Definition by blood group
After determining the blood type of the child’s mother and the prospective father, it can be said that the man with this blood type is the father of the child, say, with a probability of 75%. Such people among the population will be a considerable number. Let's say the 2nd blood group, occurs in 39% of people, among the male population of whom about 60% are men of reproductive age.

2. The definition of taking into account the reproductive ability of men
A man from the onset of puberty (14-18 years) and until old age is considered reproductively capable — that is, capable of sexual intercourse and fertilization, if not proven otherwise. The fact of the impossibility of fertilization is determined by the spermogram, in which there are corresponding deviations, and the inability to sexual intercourse is confirmed by a violation of potency. In addition, the possibility of conception at a certain time is taken into account, taking into account the duration of pregnancy and the date of delivery.That is, whether the man was at that time in the city or was familiar or cohabiting with this woman.

3. DNA testing
Recently, to establish paternity using the methods of molecular genetics, which are based on the study of human DNA. The bottom line is that the child receives some of the inherited traits from the mother, and some from the father, which are encoded in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome - this is the strand of DNA, which is packaged appropriately and explored. DNA, as the structural unit of all the same, and the individuality of each person is provided only by a combination of its fragments (alleles). These fragments are in a strictly defined area of ​​the DNA-locus. Therefore, the child in each area (locus) will get one piece from the mother (allele), and the other from the father.
When they say that they are conducting a DNA test to establish paternity, they mean that the child determines the presence of fragments (alleles) in certain areas (loci), and then they look to see if the mother and the prospective father have these fragments.
For example, in the plot (locus) D7S820, all three of them found 2 alleles 10, then in this case it cannot be said from whom the child received this fragment (allele).And if in the area (locus) THO1, a child has a fragment (allele), which neither the mother nor the prospective father has, then it means that a completely different man has transmitted it.

That is, if such a result is detected twice, unequivocally paternity can be excluded.
But most often there is an option when similar fragments (alleles) are detected in all areas (loci) taken for research. In this case, resort to the calculation method of establishing paternity, the results of which you could meet in the form of the phrase: "You are a father at 99.9%."

But what lies behind these words is known only to a narrow circle of specialists. We will not violate medical ethics when we tell all people about it, although the result may lead to a riot among the masses.
In the case of detection in all sites (loci) of similar fragments (alleles) taken for investigation, resort to the calculation method of establishing paternity. But since the fragments (alleles) are the same for all people, the frequency of their occurrence plays a role, moreover, in a given race and in a certain territory. And the less often a fragment (allele) is found, the more diagnostically significant it is.In addition, it plays the role of how many areas (loci) you took to calculate 2 or 10.
In conclusion, using this technique, it is necessary to indicate how much genetic characteristics obtained in the course of the study allow us to distinguish the object of examination being investigated from any other similar to it. That is, how many men with such genetic traits (by loci) could be the fathers of this child in a certain population. At the same time, the final result of the examination is directly dependent on the number of loci studied and in inverse relation to the frequency of occurrence of the allele in the population.

The correctness of the examination is assessed by the court. Moreover, the conclusion of even the state examination is not mandatory for the court. Important is the fact that the consideration of cases in court is based on the principles of adversarial procedure, which is regulated (Art. 16 of the CCP). Each party has equal rights in providing evidence. The parties have the right to take part in the investigation of this evidence and argue its persuasiveness in court (Art. 261 of the CCP), for example, using the help of an appropriate specialist.

And, perhaps, the most important question, what does it mean that a man is the father of a child by 99.99%?
From the correct understanding of this issue sometimes depends on the fate of a person. Unfortunately, using the ignorance of judges and lawyers of forensic issues, an expert who determined the probability of paternity, often with inexplicable reasons resorts to incorrect or incomplete interpretation of the results of the study.

That is, if the examination found that the man is the father of the child by 99.99%, this means that there will be one for 10 000 people who has the same genetic signs as the researched man and can be the father of this child. If we are talking about a town with a population of five thousand, it does not play a role, and if it is, for example, Kiev, then the fathers of the child could be 140 men.
Thus, during the examination of the definition of paternity, the forensic expert determines how many people could be fathers of a child in a given population. He should avoid formulations like "the probability of a child being born from a gr .... is 99.99%.", This is indicated in the existing methodological recommendations.

Mikhailichenko Boris Valentinovich,
Professor, Dr. med.

Related news

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99

You are the father of 99.99